Special Issue "Anthrax Toxin"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jean-Nicolas Tournier
Host-Pathogen Interactions Laboratory, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, BP 73, 91223 Brétigny-sur-Orge cedex, France
Bacterial Toxi-Infection Pathogenesis Laboratory, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du docteur Roux, 75725 Paris cedex 15, France
E-Mail: jtournie@pasteur.fr
Phone: +33 145 688 304
Interests: microbial toxins in host pathogen interactions; cell cytoskeleton; toxins and immune system; MAP kinases; adeylate cyclase; toxins and cell signaling; anthrax toxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bacillus anthracis three component toxins have been discovered 65 years ago, but their role in anthrax pathogenesis has been slowly unveiled. Anthrax toxins are formed by the association of three nontoxic factors. These three factors are the protective antigen (PA), which is the ‘binding’ factor orchestrating the entry into the cell, and the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) which bear respectively a toxic activity (metalloprotease and adenylate cyclase). Intravenous injections of PA + LF (lethal toxin, LT) have been shown to be lethal in several animal models, while intradermal injections of PA + EF (edema toxin, ET) induce edema in the subcutaneous tissues. Crystal structures have been obtained for all three components. Two cell receptors have been proposed and their ubiquitous expression explains the diverse effects of toxins on vertebrate cells. The biochemical and cellular mechanisms of entry have been described, although numerous questions still remain. The list of intracellular toxin targets is constantly growing, suggesting that we only see the tip of the iceberg. At a larger scale, the toxin effects vary from innate and adaptive immune system impairment to vascular shock, largely participating in the virulence. The large corpus of knowledge on anthrax toxins gathered over the last decades has allowed developing medical countermeasures such as chemical inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, the PA forms still the pillar of all anthrax vaccines emphasising the scientific interest of anthrax toxins.

This special issue of ‘Toxins’ intends to cover all aspects of anthrax toxin biology from the basic science up to the medical applications. It is expected to reflect as accurately as possible the vivid aspects of the field.

Dr. Jean-Nicolas Tournier
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • anthrax toxins
  • protective antigen
  • lethal factor
  • edema factor
  • metalloprotease
  • adenylyl cyclase

Published Papers (19 papers)

by ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(6), 591-607; doi:10.3390/toxins3060591
Received: 19 May 2011; in revised form: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
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by  and
Toxins 2011, 3(6), 660-671; doi:10.3390/toxins3060660
Received: 3 May 2011; in revised form: 3 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 20 June 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , , , , , ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(6), 721-736; doi:10.3390/toxins3060721
Received: 30 April 2011; in revised form: 11 June 2011 / Accepted: 21 June 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
abstract graphic

by , , ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(8), 979-990; doi:10.3390/toxins3080979
Received: 29 April 2011; in revised form: 7 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(8), 1004-1019; doi:10.3390/toxins3081004
Received: 10 June 2011; in revised form: 6 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , , , , , ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(9), 1111-1130; doi:10.3390/toxins3091111
Received: 2 June 2011; in revised form: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 7 September 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , , ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(9), 1185-1202; doi:10.3390/toxins3091185
Received: 24 August 2011; in revised form: 8 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by  and
Toxins 2011, 3(10), 1278-1293; doi:10.3390/toxins3101278
Received: 8 July 2011; in revised form: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
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by ,  and
Toxins 2011, 3(11), 1433-1452; doi:10.3390/toxins3111433
Received: 1 September 2011; in revised form: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 7 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by ,  and
Toxins 2012, 4(1), 28-41; doi:10.3390/toxins4010028
Received: 9 December 2011; in revised form: 23 December 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by  and
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 83-97; doi:10.3390/toxins4020083
Received: 10 January 2012; in revised form: 21 January 2012 / Accepted: 26 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
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by ,  and
Toxins 2012, 4(7), 505-535; doi:10.3390/toxins4070505
Received: 23 April 2012; in revised form: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
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by  and
Toxins 2012, 4(7), 536-553; doi:10.3390/toxins4070536
Received: 5 June 2012; in revised form: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , ,  and
Toxins 2012, 4(8), 580-604; doi:10.3390/toxins4080580
Received: 19 June 2012; in revised form: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by ,  and
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 878-899; doi:10.3390/toxins4100878
Received: 30 July 2012; in revised form: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , , , , , , ,  and
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1288-1300; doi:10.3390/toxins4111288
Received: 24 September 2012; in revised form: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , ,  and
Toxins 2013, 5(1), 1-8; doi:10.3390/toxins5010001
Received: 24 November 2012; in revised form: 19 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by , , , , ,  and
Toxins 2013, 5(1), 120-138; doi:10.3390/toxins5010120
Received: 23 July 2012; in revised form: 29 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
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by ,  and
Toxins 2013, 5(2), 315-326; doi:10.3390/toxins5020315
Received: 4 January 2013; Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (484 KB)

Last update: 5 March 2014

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