Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1288-1300; doi:10.3390/toxins4111288
Review

Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor

Received: 24 September 2012; in revised form: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF), an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxin’s basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was identified that inhibited the release of cAMP from cells treated with EF. The lead inhibitor was also shown to inhibit the diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in a murine model, perhaps by serving as a quorum sensor. These inhibitors are now being tested for their ability to inhibit Anthrax infection in animal models and may have use against other pathogens that produce toxins similar to EF, such as Bordetella pertussis or Vibrio cholera.
Keywords: computational design; library screening; fluorenone; adenylyl cyclase toxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schein, C.H.; Chen, D.; Ma, L.; Kanalas, J.J.; Gao, J.; Jimenez, M.E.; Sower, L.E.; Walter, M.A.; Gilbertson, S.R.; Peterson, J.W. Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor. Toxins 2012, 4, 1288-1300.

AMA Style

Schein CH, Chen D, Ma L, Kanalas JJ, Gao J, Jimenez ME, Sower LE, Walter MA, Gilbertson SR, Peterson JW. Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1288-1300.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schein, Catherine H.; Chen, Deliang; Ma, Lili; Kanalas, John J.; Gao, Jian; Jimenez, Maria Estrella; Sower, Laurie E.; Walter, Mary A.; Gilbertson, Scott R.; Peterson, Johnny W. 2012. "Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1288-1300.

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