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Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Substrate Specificity: Evidence for New Modes of Action
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, 6302 Woodruff Memorial Research Building, 101 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Department of Medicinal/Pharmaceutical Chemistry II, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany
Institute of Pharmacology, Medical School of Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625 Hannover, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2012; in revised form: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 6 July 2012
Abstract: Since the isolation of Bacillus anthracis exotoxins in the 1960s, the detrimental activity of edema factor (EF) was considered as adenylyl cyclase activity only. Yet the catalytic site of EF was recently shown to accomplish cyclization of cytidine 5′-triphosphate, uridine 5′-triphosphate and inosine 5′-triphosphate, in addition to adenosine 5′-triphosphate. This review discusses the broad EF substrate specificity and possible implications of intracellular accumulation of cyclic cytidine 3′:5′-monophosphate, cyclic uridine 3′:5′-monophosphate and cyclic inosine 3′:5′-monophosphate on cellular functions vital for host defense. In particular, cAMP-independent mechanisms of action of EF on host cell signaling via protein kinase A, protein kinase G, phosphodiesterases and CNG channels are discussed.
Keywords: adenylyl cyclase toxin; anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; edema factor; edema toxin
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MDPI and ACS Style
Göttle, M.; Dove, S.; Seifert, R. Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Substrate Specificity: Evidence for New Modes of Action. Toxins 2012, 4, 505-535.
Göttle M, Dove S, Seifert R. Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Substrate Specificity: Evidence for New Modes of Action. Toxins. 2012; 4(7):505-535.
Göttle, Martin; Dove, Stefan; Seifert, Roland. 2012. "Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Substrate Specificity: Evidence for New Modes of Action." Toxins 4, no. 7: 505-535.