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The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function
Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Office of Biotechnology Products, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2011; in revised form: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Abstract: The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA). LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT) leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
Keywords: anthrax lethal toxin; barrier function; bacteria; infection; intestine; endothelium; epithelium; blood-brain barrier
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MDPI and ACS Style
Xie, T.; Auth, R.D.; Frucht, D.M. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function. Toxins 2011, 3, 591-607.
Xie T, Auth RD, Frucht DM. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function. Toxins. 2011; 3(6):591-607.
Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D.; Frucht, David M. 2011. "The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function." Toxins 3, no. 6: 591-607.