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Toxins 2011, 3(6), 591-607; doi:10.3390/toxins3060591
Review

The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function

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Received: 19 May 2011; in revised form: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
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Abstract: The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA). LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT) leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
Keywords: anthrax lethal toxin; barrier function; bacteria; infection; intestine; endothelium; epithelium; blood-brain barrier anthrax lethal toxin; barrier function; bacteria; infection; intestine; endothelium; epithelium; blood-brain barrier
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xie, T.; Auth, R.D.; Frucht, D.M. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function. Toxins 2011, 3, 591-607.

AMA Style

Xie T, Auth RD, Frucht DM. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function. Toxins. 2011; 3(6):591-607.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D.; Frucht, David M. 2011. "The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function." Toxins 3, no. 6: 591-607.


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