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Toxins 2011, 3(9), 1111-1130; doi:10.3390/toxins3091111
Article

Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Lung

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Received: 2 June 2011; in revised form: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 7 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
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Abstract: A major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is the anthrax Lethal Toxin (LeTx), a bipartite toxin composed of Protective Antigen and Lethal Factor. Systemic administration of LeTx to laboratory animals leads to death associated with vascular leakage and pulmonary edema. In this study, we investigated whether systemic exposure of mice to LeTx would induce gene expression changes associated with vascular/capillary leakage in lung tissue. We observed enhanced susceptibility of A/J mice to death by systemic LeTx administration compared to the C57BL/6 strain. LeTx-induced groups of both up- and down-regulated genes were observed in mouse lungs 6 h after systemic administration of wild type toxin compared to lungs of mice exposed to an inactive mutant form of the toxin. Lungs of the less susceptible C57BL/6 strain showed 80% fewer differentially expressed genes compared to lungs of the more sensitive A/J strain. Expression of genes known to regulate vascular permeability was modulated by LeTx in the lungs of the more susceptible A/J strain. Unexpectedly, the largest set of genes with altered expression was immune specific, characterized by the up-regulation of lymphoid genes and the down-regulation of myeloid genes. Transcripts encoding neutrophil chemoattractants, modulators of tumor regulation and angiogenesis were also differentially expressed in both mouse strains. These studies provide new directions for the investigation of vascular leakage and pulmonary edema induced by anthrax LeTx.
Keywords: Lethal Toxin; lung; gene expression Lethal Toxin; lung; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dumas, E.K.; Cox, P.M.; Fullenwider, C.O.; Nguyen, M.; Centola, M.; Frank, M.B.; Dozmorov, I.; James, J.A.; Farris, A.D. Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Lung. Toxins 2011, 3, 1111-1130.

AMA Style

Dumas EK, Cox PM, Fullenwider CO, Nguyen M, Centola M, Frank MB, Dozmorov I, James JA, Farris AD. Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Lung. Toxins. 2011; 3(9):1111-1130.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dumas, Eric K.; Cox, Philip M.; Fullenwider, Charles O’Connor; Nguyen, Melissa; Centola, Michael; Frank, Mark Barton; Dozmorov, Igor; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise. 2011. "Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Mouse Lung." Toxins 3, no. 9: 1111-1130.



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