Toxins 2012, 4(10), 878-899; doi:10.3390/toxins4100878
Review

Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity

1email, 2email and 1,* email
Received: 30 July 2012; in revised form: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis secretes exotoxins which act through several mechanisms including those that can subvert adaptive immunity with respect both to antigen presenting cell and T cell function. The combination of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF) forming Lethal Toxin (LT), acts within host cells to down-regulate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Until recently the MAPK kinases were the only known substrate for LT; over the past few years it has become evident that LT also cleaves Nlrp1, leading to inflammasome activation and macrophage death. The predicted downstream consequences of subverting these important cellular pathways are impaired antigen presentation and adaptive immunity. In contrast to this, recent work has indicated that robust memory T cell responses to B. anthracis antigens can be identified following natural anthrax infection. We discuss how LT affects the adaptive immune response and specifically the identification of B. anthracis epitopes that are both immunogenic and protective with the potential for inclusion in protein sub-unit based vaccines.
Keywords: anthrax; lethal factor; protective antigen; CD4 T cell; vaccine; epitope
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ascough, S.; Ingram, R.J.; Altmann, D.M. Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity. Toxins 2012, 4, 878-899.

AMA Style

Ascough S, Ingram RJ, Altmann DM. Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity. Toxins. 2012; 4(10):878-899.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Altmann, Daniel M. 2012. "Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity." Toxins 4, no. 10: 878-899.

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