Next Article in Journal
Within-Mat Variability in Anatoxin-a and Homoanatoxin-a Production among Benthic Phormidium (Cyanobacteria) Strains
Next Article in Special Issue
Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor
Previous Article in Journal
Vixapatin (VP12), a C-Type Lectin-Protein from Vipera xantina palestinae Venom: Characterization as a Novel Anti-angiogenic Compound
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular Motions as a Drug Target: Mechanistic Simulations of Anthrax Toxin Edema Factor Function Led to the Discovery of Novel Allosteric Inhibitors
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 878-899; doi:10.3390/toxins4100878
Review

Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity

1
,
2
 and
1,*
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [453 KB, 22 October 2012; original version 19 October 2012]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Bacillus anthracis secretes exotoxins which act through several mechanisms including those that can subvert adaptive immunity with respect both to antigen presenting cell and T cell function. The combination of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF) forming Lethal Toxin (LT), acts within host cells to down-regulate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Until recently the MAPK kinases were the only known substrate for LT; over the past few years it has become evident that LT also cleaves Nlrp1, leading to inflammasome activation and macrophage death. The predicted downstream consequences of subverting these important cellular pathways are impaired antigen presentation and adaptive immunity. In contrast to this, recent work has indicated that robust memory T cell responses to B. anthracis antigens can be identified following natural anthrax infection. We discuss how LT affects the adaptive immune response and specifically the identification of B. anthracis epitopes that are both immunogenic and protective with the potential for inclusion in protein sub-unit based vaccines.
Keywords: anthrax; lethal factor; protective antigen; CD4 T cell; vaccine; epitope anthrax; lethal factor; protective antigen; CD4 T cell; vaccine; epitope
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Ascough, S.; Ingram, R.J.; Altmann, D.M. Anthrax Lethal Toxin and the Induction of CD4 T Cell Immunity. Toxins 2012, 4, 878-899.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert