Toxins 2012, 4(7), 536-553; doi:10.3390/toxins4070536

Bacillus anthracis Factors for Phagosomal Escape

1 Institute of Neuroscience of the National Research Council, 35131 Padua, Italy 2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, viale G. Colombo, 3, 35131 Padua, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2012; in revised form: 21 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
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Abstract: The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, B. anthracis secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of B. anthracis toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis; anthrax; spore; germination; phagocytes; toxins; anthrolysin; phospholipase C; catalase; superoxide dismutase; capsule

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tonello, F.; Zornetta, I. Bacillus anthracis Factors for Phagosomal Escape. Toxins 2012, 4, 536-553.

AMA Style

Tonello F, Zornetta I. Bacillus anthracis Factors for Phagosomal Escape. Toxins. 2012; 4(7):536-553.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tonello, Fiorella; Zornetta, Irene. 2012. "Bacillus anthracis Factors for Phagosomal Escape." Toxins 4, no. 7: 536-553.

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