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Special Issue "Amperometric Biosensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Roberto Pilloton

1st Researcher at CNR Institute for Atmospheric Pollution CNR - Via Salaria km 29, 300, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy Vice President of IAEAC (International Association on Environmental Analytical Chemistry, http://www.biosensing.net)
Interests: electrochemistry, environmental analytical chemistry; biosensors; sensors and sensing; continuous flow monitoring; immobilization techniques; enzyme inhibitors; lab on a chip; nanostructured electrodes; screen printed electrodes; herbicides; pesticides; phenolic compounds; cholinesterases; photosystem II; laccase; tyrosinase; immobilized cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than 50 years ago, Clark and Lyons created the first biosensor: a glucose amperometric sensor. They coupled a Clark amperometric sensor for dissolved oxygen with an enzyme, glucose oxidase, which was immobilized on the tip of the electrode with a cellophane membrane. This method of bio-quantitative-assaying was simple, quick, and cheap. In subsequent pioneering years, the assay was extensively and profitably developed for diabetes monitoring.

Since that time, many improvements and applications were developed to not only increase the analytical performance of these amperometric biosensors, but also to prolong the lifetime of several immobilized biological molecules. Developments concerned such molecules’ oriented immobilization, the miniaturization of transducers, and automated, long-term monitoring applications with respect to several fields, which range from medicine, to environmental science and food quality studies.

Currently, improvements in amperometric biosensors mainly concern new materials for disposable electrodes, their deposition techniques (i.e., screen and ink-jet printing) and nanostructures (i.e., nanoelectrode ensembles), engineered sensing biological molecules, their electrochemical addressing and reversible and oriented immobilization, micro-fluidic devices, and Lab-on-a-Chip devices. These improvements reflect the cross interaction of several disciplines and technologies, which range from (without being exhaustive) chemistry, biology, physics, and molecular biology, to nanotechnology, micro-fabrication, and electronic engineering.

This Special Issue aims to bring together articles discussing innovative applications of amperometric biosensors, and to share the benefit of these new ideas and concepts, which are employed in multiple fields, with authors and readers of the journal, who have varying interests.

Both review articles and original research papers relating to the application of amperometric biosensors are solicited.

Dr. Roberto Pilloton
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • amperometric biosensors
  • nanostructured particles and electrodes
  • carbon nanotubes and graphene
  • engineered molecules or microorganisms
  • continuous flow monitoring
  • immobilization techniques
  • lab on a chip
  • screen printed electrode

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Amperometric Enzyme Sensor to Check the Total Antioxidant Capacity of Several Mixed Berries. Comparison with Two Other Spectrophotometric and Fluorimetric Methods
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3435-3452; doi:10.3390/s150203435
Received: 10 December 2014 / Revised: 29 December 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 3 February 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this research was to test the correctness of response of a superoxide dismutase amperometric biosensor used for the purpose of measuring and ranking the total antioxidant capacity of several systematically analysed mixed berries. Several methods are described in the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to test the correctness of response of a superoxide dismutase amperometric biosensor used for the purpose of measuring and ranking the total antioxidant capacity of several systematically analysed mixed berries. Several methods are described in the literature for determining antioxidant capacity, each culminating in the construction of an antioxidant capacity scale and each using its own unit of measurement. It was therefore endeavoured to correlate and compare the results obtained using the present amperometric biosensor method with those resulting from two other different methods for determining the total antioxidant capacity selected from among those more frequently cited in the literature. The purpose was to establish a methodological approach consisting in the simultaneous application of different methods that it would be possible to use to obtain an accurate estimation of the total antioxidant capacity of different mixed berries and the food products containing them. Testing was therefore extended to also cover jams, yoghurts and juices containing mixed berries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Chronoamperometric Screen Printed Carbon Biosensor Based on Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibition for W(VI) Determination in Water, Using 2-Phospho-l-Ascorbic Acid Trisodium Salt as a Substrate
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 2232-2243; doi:10.3390/s150202232
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 31 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized in the working electrode. Enzymatic activity over 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid trisodium salt, used as substrate, was affected by [...] Read more.
This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized in the working electrode. Enzymatic activity over 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid trisodium salt, used as substrate, was affected by tungsten ions, which resulted in a decrease of chronoamperometric current, when a potential of 200 mV was applied on 10 mM of substrate in a Tris HCl buffer pH 8.00 and 0.36 M of KCl. Calibration curves for the electrochemical method validation, give a reproducibility of 5.2% (n = 3), a repeatability of 9.4% (n = 3) and a detection limit of 0.29 ± 0.01 µM. Enriched tap water, purified laboratory water and bottled drinking water, with a certified tungsten reference solution traceable to NIST, gave a recovery of 97.1%, 99.1% and 99.1% respectively (n = 4 in each case) and a dynamic range from 0.6 to 30 µM. This study was performed by means of a Lineweaver–Burk plot, showing a mixed kinetic inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Ferrocene-Functionalized 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline: A Novel Design in Conducting Polymer-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 1389-1403; doi:10.3390/s150101389
Received: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein, we report a novel ferrocenyldithiophosphonate functional conducting polymer and its use as an immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensor applications. Initially, 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)amidoferrocenyldithiophosphonate was synthesized and copolymerized with 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzenamine at graphite electrodes. The amino groups on the polymer were [...] Read more.
Herein, we report a novel ferrocenyldithiophosphonate functional conducting polymer and its use as an immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensor applications. Initially, 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)amidoferrocenyldithiophosphonate was synthesized and copolymerized with 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzenamine at graphite electrodes. The amino groups on the polymer were utilized for covalent attachment of the enzyme glucose oxidase. Besides, ferrocene on the backbone was used as a redox mediator during the electrochemical measurements. Prior to the analytical characterization, optimization studies were carried out. The changes in current signals at +0.45 V were proportional to glucose concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mM. Finally, the resulting biosensor was applied for glucose analysis in real samples and the data were compared with the spectrophotometric Trinder method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 11097-11109; doi:10.3390/s140611097
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic [...] Read more.
In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA) is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V) with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99) and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA∙mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA∙mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 4.2% (n = 5) have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition-Based Biosensor for Aluminum(III) Chronoamperometric Determination in Aqueous Media
Sensors 2014, 14(5), 8203-8216; doi:10.3390/s140508203
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme [...] Read more.
A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III). The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4). Main interferences include Mo(VI), W(VI) and Hg(II) ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in spiked tap water . The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response
Sensors 2014, 14(3), 4634-4656; doi:10.3390/s140304634
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses [...] Read more.
The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Disposable Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Biosensor for Vanadium Chronoamperometric Determination
Sensors 2014, 14(2), 3756-3767; doi:10.3390/s140203756
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium [...] Read more.
A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 µM, a repeatability of 7.7% (n = 4) and a reproducibility of 8% (n = 3). A study of the possible interferences shows that the presence of Mo(VI), Cr(III), Ca(II) and W(VI), may affect vanadium determination at concentration higher than 1.0 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in spiked tap water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Laccase Biosensor Based on Electrospun Copper/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Catechol Detection
Sensors 2014, 14(2), 3543-3556; doi:10.3390/s140203543
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study compared the biosensing properties of laccase biosensors based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and copper/carbon composite nanofibers (Cu/CNFs). The two kinds of nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and [...] Read more.
The study compared the biosensing properties of laccase biosensors based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and copper/carbon composite nanofibers (Cu/CNFs). The two kinds of nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the morphologies and structures of CNFs and Cu/CNFs. The amperometric results indicated that the Cu/CNFs/laccase(Lac)/Nafion/glass carbon electrode (GCE) possessed reliable analytical performance for the detection of catechol. The sensitivity of the Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE reached 33.1 μA/mM, larger than that of CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Meanwhile, Cu/CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE had a wider linear range from 9.95 × 10−6 to 9.76 × 10−3 M and a lower detection limit of 1.18 μM than CNFs/Lac/Nafion/GCE. Moreover, it exhibited a good repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and long-term stability, revealing that electrospun Cu/CNFs have great potential in biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Computational Modeling of Mediator Oxidation by Oxygen in an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor
Sensors 2014, 14(2), 2578-2594; doi:10.3390/s140202578
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an [...] Read more.
In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an electrode by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated terylene membrane. This membrane is modeled as a PVA layer and a terylene layer, which have different diffusivities. The fourth layer of the model is the diffusion layer, which is modeled using the Nernst approach. The system of partial differential equations is solved numerically using the finite difference technique. The operation of the biosensor was analyzed computationally with special emphasis on the biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen when the experiment was carried out in aerobic conditions. Particularly, numerical experiments show that the overall biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen is insignificant. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed biosensor behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3801-3829; doi:10.3390/s150203801
Received: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic [...] Read more.
Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Combining Electrochemical Sensors with Miniaturized Sample Preparation for Rapid Detection in Clinical Samples
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 547-564; doi:10.3390/s150100547
Received: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clinical analyses benefit world-wide from rapid and reliable diagnostics tests. New tests are sought with greatest demand not only for new analytes, but also to reduce costs, complexity and lengthy analysis times of current techniques. Among the myriad of possibilities available today [...] Read more.
Clinical analyses benefit world-wide from rapid and reliable diagnostics tests. New tests are sought with greatest demand not only for new analytes, but also to reduce costs, complexity and lengthy analysis times of current techniques. Among the myriad of possibilities available today to develop new test systems, amperometric biosensors are prominent players—best represented by the ubiquitous amperometric-based glucose sensors. Electrochemical approaches in general require little and often enough only simple hardware components, are rugged and yet provide low limits of detection. They thus offer many of the desirable attributes for point-of-care/point-of-need tests. This review focuses on investigating the important integration of sample preparation with (primarily electrochemical) biosensors. Sample clean up requirements, miniaturized sample preparation strategies, and their potential integration with sensors will be discussed, focusing on clinical sample analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Current Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Amperometric Biosensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23439-23461; doi:10.3390/s141223439
Received: 11 October 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The last decade has witnessed an intensive research effort in the field of electrochemical sensors, with a particular focus on the design of amperometric biosensors for diverse analytical applications. In this context, nanomaterial integration in the construction of amperometric biosensors may constitute [...] Read more.
The last decade has witnessed an intensive research effort in the field of electrochemical sensors, with a particular focus on the design of amperometric biosensors for diverse analytical applications. In this context, nanomaterial integration in the construction of amperometric biosensors may constitute one of the most exciting approaches. The attractive properties of nanomaterials have paved the way for the design of a wide variety of biosensors based on various electrochemical detection methods to enhance the analytical characteristics. However, most of these nanostructured materials are not explored in the design of amperometric biosensors. This review aims to provide insight into the diverse properties of nanomaterials that can be possibly explored in the construction of amperometric biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amperometric Biosensors)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

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