E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Advances on Data Transmission and Analysis for Wearable Sensors Systems"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yun Liu

Communication Engineering Department, Beijing Jiaotong University, Haidian District, Beijing 100044, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86-10-5168-4227
Interests: communication networking; wireless sensor networks and Big Data
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Han-Chieh Chao

Dean, College of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Director, Computer & IT Center, National Ilan University, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +886-3-9357400 - 251
Fax: +866-3-9354238
Interests: high speed networks; wireless networks; green IT; cloud computing
Guest Editor
Dr. Pony Chu

Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Dr., San Jose, CA 95134, USA
E-Mail
Phone: +1-408-893-5288
Interests: mobile communications; wireless sensor networks; data mining
Guest Editor
Dr. Wendong Xiao

School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wireless localization and tracking; energy harvesting based network resource management; distributed machine learning for big data; wireless sensor networks; internet of things

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the advantages of practicability, flexibility, low-cost, and unobtrusiveness, in recent years, wearable sensor systems have infiltrated daily human life in applications like activity monitoring, healthcare, rehabilitation, sport training, and entertaining. The development of wearable sensor systems aims at continuously improving the quality of user experience and the performance of researches, which requires the sensor data transmission to be more robust, secure and energy saving, along with more intelligent and reliable data processing techniques. Additionally, many emerging applications of wearable sensors have brought new challenging problems, such as group behavior analysis, dynamic routing and wearable sensor based in-door localization, which force us to find new models or solutions to address them.

In this Special Issue, we solicit original papers with high quality related to data transmission and analysis for wearable sensor systems. Contribution may include, but are not limited to:

  • Ÿ   Pattern recognition and analysis, such as daily activity recognition, gait analysis, behavior analysis, disease diagnosis;
  • Ÿ   Localization and tracking problems for wearable sensors;
  • Ÿ   Data fusion for heterogeneous or multisource wearable sensor data;
  • Ÿ   Mobility support for wearable sensors, such as energy harvesting and dynamic routing or clustering;
  • Ÿ   Group behavior analysis and prediction;
  • Ÿ   Security and privacy issues in data transmission and system protection;
  • Ÿ   Other emerging wearable sensor applications;

Prof. Dr. Yun Liu
Prof. Dr. Wendong Xiao
Prof. Dr. Han-Chieh Chao
Dr. Pony Chu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wearable sensors
  • Intelligent computing
  • Activity monitoring
  • Behavior analysis
  • Security and privacy
  • Mobility support

Published Papers (16 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle An Integrated Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Posture Recognition and Indoor Localization
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1825; doi:10.3390/s16111825
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to provide better monitoring for the elderly or patients, we developed an integrated wireless wearable sensor system that can realize posture recognition and indoor localization in real time. Five designed sensor nodes which are respectively fixed on lower limbs and a
[...] Read more.
In order to provide better monitoring for the elderly or patients, we developed an integrated wireless wearable sensor system that can realize posture recognition and indoor localization in real time. Five designed sensor nodes which are respectively fixed on lower limbs and a standard Kalman filter are used to acquire basic attitude data. After the attitude angles of five body segments (two thighs, two shanks and the waist) are obtained, the pitch angles of the left thigh and waist are used to realize posture recognition. Based on all these attitude angles of body segments, we can also calculate the coordinates of six lower limb joints (two hip joints, two knee joints and two ankle joints). Then, a novel relative localization algorithm based on step length is proposed to realize the indoor localization of the user. Several sparsely distributed active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags are used to correct the accumulative error in the relative localization algorithm and a set-membership filter is applied to realize the data fusion. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ensemble of One-Class Classifiers for Personal Risk Detection Based on Wearable Sensor Data
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1619; doi:10.3390/s16101619
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 24 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study introduces the One-Class K-means with Randomly-projected features Algorithm (OCKRA). OCKRA is an ensemble of one-class classifiers built over multiple projections of a dataset according to random feature subsets. Algorithms found in the literature spread over a wide range of applications where
[...] Read more.
This study introduces the One-Class K-means with Randomly-projected features Algorithm (OCKRA). OCKRA is an ensemble of one-class classifiers built over multiple projections of a dataset according to random feature subsets. Algorithms found in the literature spread over a wide range of applications where ensembles of one-class classifiers have been satisfactorily applied; however, none is oriented to the area under our study: personal risk detection. OCKRA has been designed with the aim of improving the detection performance in the problem posed by the Personal RIsk DEtection(PRIDE) dataset. PRIDE was built based on 23 test subjects, where the data for each user were captured using a set of sensors embedded in a wearable band. The performance of OCKRA was compared against support vector machine and three versions of the Parzen window classifier. On average, experimental results show that OCKRA outperformed the other classifiers for at least 0.53% of the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, OCKRA achieved an AUC above 90% for more than 57% of the users. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Collection and Processing of Data from Wrist Wearable Devices in Heterogeneous and Multiple-User Scenarios
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1538; doi:10.3390/s16091538
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over recent years, we have witnessed the development of mobile and wearable technologies to collect data from human vital signs and activities. Nowadays, wrist wearables including sensors (e.g., heart rate, accelerometer, pedometer) that provide valuable data are common in market. We are working
[...] Read more.
Over recent years, we have witnessed the development of mobile and wearable technologies to collect data from human vital signs and activities. Nowadays, wrist wearables including sensors (e.g., heart rate, accelerometer, pedometer) that provide valuable data are common in market. We are working on the analytic exploitation of this kind of data towards the support of learners and teachers in educational contexts. More precisely, sleep and stress indicators are defined to assist teachers and learners on the regulation of their activities. During this development, we have identified interoperability challenges related to the collection and processing of data from wearable devices. Different vendors adopt specific approaches about the way data can be collected from wearables into third-party systems. This hinders such developments as the one that we are carrying out. This paper contributes to identifying key interoperability issues in this kind of scenario and proposes guidelines to solve them. Taking into account these topics, this work is situated in the context of the standardization activities being carried out in the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine domains. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1385; doi:10.3390/s16091385
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
PDF Full-text (2150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches
[...] Read more.
To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Recognition of Daily Gestures with Wearable Inertial Rings and Bracelets
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1341; doi:10.3390/s16081341
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recognition of activities of daily living plays an important role in monitoring elderly people and helping caregivers in controlling and detecting changes in daily behaviors. Thanks to the miniaturization and low cost of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMs), in particular of Inertial Measurement Units, in
[...] Read more.
Recognition of activities of daily living plays an important role in monitoring elderly people and helping caregivers in controlling and detecting changes in daily behaviors. Thanks to the miniaturization and low cost of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMs), in particular of Inertial Measurement Units, in recent years body-worn activity recognition has gained popularity. In this context, the proposed work aims to recognize nine different gestures involved in daily activities using hand and wrist wearable sensors. Additionally, the analysis was carried out also considering different combinations of wearable sensors, in order to find the best combination in terms of unobtrusiveness and recognition accuracy. In order to achieve the proposed goals, an extensive experimentation was performed in a realistic environment. Twenty users were asked to perform the selected gestures and then the data were off-line analyzed to extract significant features. In order to corroborate the analysis, the classification problem was treated using two different and commonly used supervised machine learning techniques, namely Decision Tree and Support Vector Machine, analyzing both personal model and Leave-One-Subject-Out cross validation. The results obtained from this analysis show that the proposed system is able to recognize the proposed gestures with an accuracy of 89.01% in the Leave-One-Subject-Out cross validation and are therefore promising for further investigation in real life scenarios. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1322; doi:10.3390/s16081322
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied
[...] Read more.
Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts’ efficiency. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1225; doi:10.3390/s16081225
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 3 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks
[...] Read more.
Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Examination of Inertial Sensor-Based Estimation Methods of Lower Limb Joint Moments and Ground Reaction Force: Results for Squat and Sit-to-Stand Movements in the Sagittal Plane
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1209; doi:10.3390/s16081209
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 23 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 1 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Joint moment estimation by a camera-based motion measurement system and a force plate has a limitation of measurement environment and is costly. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate quantitatively inertial sensor-based joint moment estimation methods with five-link, four-link and three-link rigid
[...] Read more.
Joint moment estimation by a camera-based motion measurement system and a force plate has a limitation of measurement environment and is costly. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate quantitatively inertial sensor-based joint moment estimation methods with five-link, four-link and three-link rigid body models using different trunk segmented models. Joint moments, ground reaction forces (GRF) and center of pressure (CoP) were estimated for squat and sit-to-stand movements in the sagittal plane measured with six healthy subjects. The five-link model and the four-link model that the trunk was divided at the highest point of the iliac crest (four-link-IC model) were appropriate for joint moment estimation with inertial sensors, which showed average RMS values of about 0.1 Nm/kg for all lower limb joints and average correlation coefficients of about 0.98 for hip and knee joints and about 0.80 for ankle joint. Average root mean square (RMS) errors of horizontal and vertical GRFs and CoP were about 10 N, 15 N and 2 cm, respectively. Inertial sensor-based method was suggested to be an option for estimating joint moments of the trunk segments. Inertial sensors were also shown to be useful for the bottom-up estimation method using measured GRFs, in which average RMS values and average correlation coefficients were about 0.06 Nm/kg and larger than about 0.98 for all joints. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Method of Data Aggregation for Wearable Sensor Systems
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 954; doi:10.3390/s16070954
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data aggregation has been considered as an effective way to decrease the data to be transferred in sensor networks. Particularly for wearable sensor systems, smaller battery has less energy, which makes energy conservation in data transmission more important. Nevertheless, wearable sensor systems usually
[...] Read more.
Data aggregation has been considered as an effective way to decrease the data to be transferred in sensor networks. Particularly for wearable sensor systems, smaller battery has less energy, which makes energy conservation in data transmission more important. Nevertheless, wearable sensor systems usually have features like frequently dynamic changes of topologies and data over a large range, of which current aggregating methods can’t adapt to the demand. In this paper, we study the system composed of many wearable devices with sensors, such as the network of a tactical unit, and introduce an energy consumption-balanced method of data aggregation, named LDA-RT. In the proposed method, we develop a query algorithm based on the idea of ‘happened-before’ to construct a dynamic and energy-balancing routing tree. We also present a distributed data aggregating and sorting algorithm to execute top-k query and decrease the data that must be transferred among wearable devices. Combining these algorithms, LDA-RT tries to balance the energy consumptions for prolonging the lifetime of wearable sensor systems. Results of evaluation indicate that LDA-RT performs well in constructing routing trees and energy balances. It also outperforms the filter-based top-k monitoring approach in energy consumption, load balance, and the network’s lifetime, especially for highly dynamic data sources. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Novel Field-Circuit FEM Modeling and Channel Gain Estimation for Galvanic Coupling Real IBC Measurements
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 471; doi:10.3390/s16040471
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 2 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Existing research on human channel modeling of galvanic coupling intra-body communication (IBC) is primarily focused on the human body itself. Although galvanic coupling IBC is less disturbed by external influences during signal transmission, there are inevitable factors in real measurement scenarios such as
[...] Read more.
Existing research on human channel modeling of galvanic coupling intra-body communication (IBC) is primarily focused on the human body itself. Although galvanic coupling IBC is less disturbed by external influences during signal transmission, there are inevitable factors in real measurement scenarios such as the parasitic impedance of electrodes, impedance matching of the transceiver, etc. which might lead to deviations between the human model and the in vivo measurements. This paper proposes a field-circuit finite element method (FEM) model of galvanic coupling IBC in a real measurement environment to estimate the human channel gain. First an anisotropic concentric cylinder model of the electric field intra-body communication for human limbs was developed based on the galvanic method. Then the electric field model was combined with several impedance elements, which were equivalent in terms of parasitic impedance of the electrodes, input and output impedance of the transceiver, establishing a field-circuit FEM model. The results indicated that a circuit module equivalent to external factors can be added to the field-circuit model, which makes this model more complete, and the estimations based on the proposed field-circuit are in better agreement with the corresponding measurement results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Wearable Sensor Localization Considering Mixed Distributed Sources in Health Monitoring Systems
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 368; doi:10.3390/s16030368
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 12 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In health monitoring systems, the base station (BS) and the wearable sensors communicate with each other to construct a virtual multiple input and multiple output (VMIMO) system. In real applications, the signal that the BS received is a distributed source because of the
[...] Read more.
In health monitoring systems, the base station (BS) and the wearable sensors communicate with each other to construct a virtual multiple input and multiple output (VMIMO) system. In real applications, the signal that the BS received is a distributed source because of the scattering, reflection, diffraction and refraction in the propagation path. In this paper, a 2D direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm for incoherently-distributed (ID) and coherently-distributed (CD) sources is proposed based on multiple VMIMO systems. ID and CD sources are separated through the second-order blind identification (SOBI) algorithm. The traditional estimating signal parameters via the rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT)-based algorithm is valid only for one-dimensional (1D) DOA estimation for the ID source. By constructing the signal subspace, two rotational invariant relationships are constructed. Then, we extend the ESPRIT to estimate 2D DOAs for ID sources. For DOA estimation of CD sources, two rational invariance relationships are constructed based on the application of generalized steering vectors (GSVs). Then, the ESPRIT-based algorithm is used for estimating the eigenvalues of two rational invariance matrices, which contain the angular parameters. The expressions of azimuth and elevation for ID and CD sources have closed forms, which means that the spectrum peak searching is avoided. Therefore, compared to the traditional 2D DOA estimation algorithms, the proposed algorithm imposes significantly low computational complexity. The intersecting point of two rays, which come from two different directions measured by two uniform rectangle arrays (URA), can be regarded as the location of the biosensor (wearable sensor). Three BSs adopting the smart antenna (SA) technique cooperate with each other to locate the wearable sensors using the angulation positioning method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Full article
Open AccessArticle Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 284; doi:10.3390/s16030284
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying
[...] Read more.
In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Block Sparse Compressed Sensing of Electroencephalogram (EEG) Signals by Exploiting Linear and Non-Linear Dependencies
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 201; doi:10.3390/s16020201
Received: 6 December 2015 / Revised: 24 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a compressive sensing (CS) method for multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications, where the battery life of sensors is limited. For the single EEG channel case, known as the single measurement vector (SMV) problem, the
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a compressive sensing (CS) method for multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications, where the battery life of sensors is limited. For the single EEG channel case, known as the single measurement vector (SMV) problem, the Block Sparse Bayesian Learning-BO (BSBL-BO) method has been shown to yield good results. This method exploits the block sparsity and the intra-correlation (i.e., the linear dependency) within the measurement vector of a single channel. For the multichannel case, known as the multi-measurement vector (MMV) problem, the Spatio-Temporal Sparse Bayesian Learning (STSBL-EM) method has been proposed. This method learns the joint correlation structure in the multichannel signals by whitening the model in the temporal and the spatial domains. Our proposed method represents the multi-channels signal data as a vector that is constructed in a specific way, so that it has a better block sparsity structure than the conventional representation obtained by stacking the measurement vectors of the different channels. To reconstruct the multichannel EEG signals, we modify the parameters of the BSBL-BO algorithm, so that it can exploit not only the linear but also the non-linear dependency structures in a vector. The modified BSBL-BO is then applied on the vector with the better sparsity structure. The proposed method is shown to significantly outperform existing SMV and also MMV methods. It also shows significant lower compression errors even at high compression ratios such as 10:1 on three different datasets. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Compressed Sensing-Based Wearable Sensor Network for Quantitative Assessment of Stroke Patients
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 202; doi:10.3390/s16020202
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 23 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
PDF Full-text (3492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1) they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2) they only have
[...] Read more.
Clinical rehabilitation assessment is an important part of the therapy process because it is the premise for prescribing suitable rehabilitation interventions. However, the commonly used assessment scales have the following two drawbacks: (1) they are susceptible to subjective factors; (2) they only have several rating levels and are influenced by a ceiling effect, making it impossible to exactly detect any further improvement in the movement. Meanwhile, energy constraints are a primary design consideration in wearable sensor network systems since they are often battery-operated. Traditionally, for wearable sensor network systems that follow the Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem, there are many data that need to be sampled and transmitted. This paper proposes a novel wearable sensor network system to monitor and quantitatively assess the upper limb motion function, based on compressed sensing technology. With the sparse representation model, less data is transmitted to the computer than with traditional systems. The experimental results show that the accelerometer signals of Bobath handshake and shoulder touch exercises can be compressed, and the length of the compressed signal is less than 1/3 of the raw signal length. More importantly, the reconstruction errors have no influence on the predictive accuracy of the Brunnstrom stage classification model. It also indicated that the proposed system can not only reduce the amount of data during the sampling and transmission processes, but also, the reconstructed accelerometer signals can be used for quantitative assessment without any loss of useful information. Full article
Open AccessArticle Recognition of Human Activities Using Continuous Autoencoders with Wearable Sensors
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 189; doi:10.3390/s16020189
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides an approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors. The continuous autoencoder (CAE) as a novel stochastic neural network model is proposed which improves the ability of model continuous data. CAE adds Gaussian random units into the improved sigmoid activation
[...] Read more.
This paper provides an approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors. The continuous autoencoder (CAE) as a novel stochastic neural network model is proposed which improves the ability of model continuous data. CAE adds Gaussian random units into the improved sigmoid activation function to extract the features of nonlinear data. In order to shorten the training time, we propose a new fast stochastic gradient descent (FSGD) algorithm to update the gradients of CAE. The reconstruction of a swiss-roll dataset experiment demonstrates that the CAE can fit continuous data better than the basic autoencoder, and the training time can be reduced by an FSGD algorithm. In the experiment of human activities’ recognition, time and frequency domain feature extract (TFFE) method is raised to extract features from the original sensors’ data. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is applied to feature reduction. It can be noticed that the dimension of each data segment is reduced from 5625 to 42. The feature vectors extracted from original signals are used for the input of deep belief network (DBN), which is composed of multiple CAEs. The training results show that the correct differentiation rate of 99.3% has been achieved. Some contrast experiments like different sensors combinations, sensor units at different positions, and training time with different epochs are designed to validate our approach. Full article
Open AccessArticle Deep Convolutional and LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks for Multimodal Wearable Activity Recognition
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 115; doi:10.3390/s16010115
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 31 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (2156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human activity recognition (HAR) tasks have traditionally been solved using engineered features obtained by heuristic processes. Current research suggests that deep convolutional neural networks are suited to automate feature extraction from raw sensor inputs. However, human activities are made of complex sequences of
[...] Read more.
Human activity recognition (HAR) tasks have traditionally been solved using engineered features obtained by heuristic processes. Current research suggests that deep convolutional neural networks are suited to automate feature extraction from raw sensor inputs. However, human activities are made of complex sequences of motor movements, and capturing this temporal dynamics is fundamental for successful HAR. Based on the recent success of recurrent neural networks for time series domains, we propose a generic deep framework for activity recognition based on convolutional and LSTM recurrent units, which: (i) is suitable for multimodal wearable sensors; (ii) can perform sensor fusion naturally; (iii) does not require expert knowledge in designing features; and (iv) explicitly models the temporal dynamics of feature activations. We evaluate our framework on two datasets, one of which has been used in a public activity recognition challenge. Our results show that our framework outperforms competing deep non-recurrent networks on the challenge dataset by 4% on average; outperforming some of the previous reported results by up to 9%. Our results show that the framework can be applied to homogeneous sensor modalities, but can also fuse multimodal sensors to improve performance. We characterise key architectural hyperparameters’ influence on performance to provide insights about their optimisation. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sensors Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sensors Edit a special issue Review for Sensors
logo
loading...
Back to Top