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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 471; doi:10.3390/s16040471

A Novel Field-Circuit FEM Modeling and Channel Gain Estimation for Galvanic Coupling Real IBC Measurements

1,2,* , 1,2,†
College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
Key Lab of Medical Instrumentation & Pharmaceutical Technology of Fujian Province, Fuzhou 350116, China
State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed Signal VLSI, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yun Liu, Han-Chieh Chao, Pony Chu and Wendong Xiao
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 2 April 2016
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Existing research on human channel modeling of galvanic coupling intra-body communication (IBC) is primarily focused on the human body itself. Although galvanic coupling IBC is less disturbed by external influences during signal transmission, there are inevitable factors in real measurement scenarios such as the parasitic impedance of electrodes, impedance matching of the transceiver, etc. which might lead to deviations between the human model and the in vivo measurements. This paper proposes a field-circuit finite element method (FEM) model of galvanic coupling IBC in a real measurement environment to estimate the human channel gain. First an anisotropic concentric cylinder model of the electric field intra-body communication for human limbs was developed based on the galvanic method. Then the electric field model was combined with several impedance elements, which were equivalent in terms of parasitic impedance of the electrodes, input and output impedance of the transceiver, establishing a field-circuit FEM model. The results indicated that a circuit module equivalent to external factors can be added to the field-circuit model, which makes this model more complete, and the estimations based on the proposed field-circuit are in better agreement with the corresponding measurement results. View Full-Text
Keywords: galvanic coupling intra-body communication; field-circuit coupling; channel modeling; channel estimation galvanic coupling intra-body communication; field-circuit coupling; channel modeling; channel estimation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gao, Y.-M.; Wu, Z.-M.; Pun, S.-H.; Mak, P.-U.; Vai, M.-I.; Du, M. A Novel Field-Circuit FEM Modeling and Channel Gain Estimation for Galvanic Coupling Real IBC Measurements. Sensors 2016, 16, 471.

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