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Special Issue "Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. James Hyuk Park

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology (SeoulTech), 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01811, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-2-970-6702
Fax: +82-2-977-9441
Interests: IoT; Ubiquitous Computing; Cloud Computing; Information Security
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Han-Chieh Chao

Dean, College of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Director, Computer & IT Center, National Ilan University, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +886-3-9357400 - 251
Fax: +866-3-9354238
Interests: high speed networks; wireless networks; green IT; cloud computing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Future Sustainability Computing (FSC) is a principle that embraces a range of policies, procedures, programs, and attitudes that run the length and breadth of any uses of information technologies for abundant life. It must address sustainability problems in different computing and information processing environments and technologies. Solutions for these problems, information processing, integration, utilization, aggregation, and generation, can call upon a wide range of algorithmic and computational frameworks within cloud, cluster and mobile computing, such as optimization, machine learning, dynamical systems, prediction and control, decision support systems, and meta-heuristics, security and safety, and so on.

This Special Issue covers pure research and applications within the novel scopes related to sustainability computing, such as smart devices, cloud storage organization, data transfer in new communication environment, software and information processing, and efficient algorithmic information distribution/processing. In addition, it is dealing with hardware/software technologies, new frameworks and architectures, efficient modeling-simulation, specific mathematical models, and designs on theories for the future sustainability computing are recommended.

All submitted papers will be peer-reviewed and selected on the basis of both their quality and their relevance to the theme of this special issue. This Special Issue solicits innovative ideas and solutions in all aspects around the future sustainable computing for advanced information technology. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

- Theoretical and algorithms aspect of energy in FSC
- New paradigm software, middleware and systems in FSC
- Energy-efficient communication protocols in FSC
- Optimization, machine learning, prediction and control, decision support systems for FSC
- Smart networking and real-time systems in FSC
- Management in memory, disk, storage and other peripheral devices with cloud computing
- Monitoring and visualization methodologies and tools in FSC
- Ecosystem for FSC
- Security and safety for FSC
- Wearable computing in FSC
- Sustainable information technologies for governance
- Other sustainable systems and applications for FSC

Prof. Dr. James Park
Prof. Dr. Han-Chieh Chao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy-efficient
  • optimization and control
  • green cloud
  • ecosystem
  • smart networking
  • security and safety
  • monitoring

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Advanced IT-Based Future Sustainable Computing
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 757; doi:10.3390/su9050757
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Future Sustainability Computing (FSC) is a novel research topic that deals with algorithms, procedures, and applications of information technologies for abundant life. In this Special Issue, we cover novel research and applications within the scope of sustainability computing dealing with hardware/software technologies, especially
[...] Read more.
Future Sustainability Computing (FSC) is a novel research topic that deals with algorithms, procedures, and applications of information technologies for abundant life. In this Special Issue, we cover novel research and applications within the scope of sustainability computing dealing with hardware/software technologies, especially for frameworks and architectures. For example, topics include dynamic group management in Internet of Things (IoT); real-time video surveillance; security threats in Software Defined Network (SDN); real-time indoor Air-Quality level indicator; effectiveness of information systems security; load-balancing for inter-sensor convergence; neighbor discovery in sensor networks; transmission algorithm with Quality of Service (QoS) consideration; analysis of the relationship between Intrusion Detection System (IDS) alerts and darknet are included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Transmission Algorithm with QoS Considerations for a Sustainable MPEG Streaming Service
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 367; doi:10.3390/su9030367
Received: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the proliferation of heterogeneous networks, there is a need to provide multimedia stream services in a sustainable manner. It is especially critical to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) standards. Existing multimedia streaming services have been studied to guarantee QoS on the
[...] Read more.
With the proliferation of heterogeneous networks, there is a need to provide multimedia stream services in a sustainable manner. It is especially critical to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) standards. Existing multimedia streaming services have been studied to guarantee QoS on the receiving side. QoS has not been ensured due to the fact that the loss of streaming data to be transmitted has not been considered in network conditions. With an algorithm that considers the QoS and can reduce the overhead of the network, it will be possible to reduce the transmission error and wastage of communication network resources. In this paper, we propose a scheme that improves the reliability of multimedia transmissions by using an adaptive algorithm that switches between UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) based on the size of the data. In addition, we present a method that retransmits essential portions of the multimedia data, thus improving transmission efficiency. We simulate an MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) stream service and evaluate the performance of the proposed adaptive MPEG stream service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Practical In-Depth Analysis of IDS Alerts for Tracing and Identifying Potential Attackers on Darknet
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 262; doi:10.3390/su9020262
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses) is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming
[...] Read more.
The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses) is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming packets on the darknet (‘the darknet traffic’) do not contain a payload. This means that we are unable to get real malware from the darknet traffic. This situation makes it difficult for security experts (e.g., academic researchers, engineers, operators, etc.) to identify whether the source hosts of the darknet traffic are infected by real malware or not. In this paper, we present the overall procedure of the in-depth analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts using real data collected at the Science and Technology Cyber Security Center (S&T CSC) in Korea and provide the detailed in-depth analysis results. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide practical experience, insight and know-how to security experts so that they are able to identify and trace the root cause of the darknet traffic. The experimental results show that correlation analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts is very useful to discover potential attack hosts, especially internal hosts, and to find out what kinds of malware infected them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle RSSI-Based Distance Estimation Framework Using a Kalman Filter for Sustainable Indoor Computing Environments
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1136; doi:10.3390/su8111136
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given that location information is the key to providing a variety of services in sustainable indoor computing environments, it is required to obtain accurate locations. Locations can be estimated by three distances from three fixed points. Therefore, if the distance between two points
[...] Read more.
Given that location information is the key to providing a variety of services in sustainable indoor computing environments, it is required to obtain accurate locations. Locations can be estimated by three distances from three fixed points. Therefore, if the distance between two points can be measured or estimated accurately, the location in indoor environments can be estimated. To increase the accuracy of the measured distance, noise filtering, signal revision, and distance estimation processes are generally performed. This paper proposes a novel framework for estimating the distance between a beacon and an access point (AP) in a sustainable indoor computing environment. Diverse types of received strength signal indications (RSSIs) are used for WiFi, Bluetooth, and radio signals, and the proposed distance estimation framework is unique in that it is independent of the specific wireless signal involved, being based on the Bluetooth signal of the beacon. Generally, RSSI measurement, noise filtering, and revision are required for distance estimation using RSSIs. The employed RSSIs are first measured from an AP, with multiple APs sometimes used to increase the accuracy of the distance estimation. Owing to the inevitable presence of noise in the measured RSSIs, the application of noise filtering is essential, and further revision is used to address the inaccuracy and instability that characterizes RSSIs measured in an indoor environment. The revised RSSIs are then used to estimate the distance. The proposed distance estimation framework uses one AP to measure the RSSIs, a Kalman filter to eliminate noise, and a log-distance path loss model to revise the measured RSSIs. In the experimental implementation of the framework, both a RSSI filter and a Kalman filter were respectively used for noise elimination to comparatively evaluate the performance of the latter for the specific application. The Kalman filter was found to reduce the accumulated errors by 8% relative to the RSSI filter. This confirmed the accuracy of the proposed distance estimation framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Group Management Scheme for Sustainable and Secure Information Sensing in IoT
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 1081; doi:10.3390/su8101081
Received: 7 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The services provided to users in the environment associated with the Internet of Things (hereinafter referred to as IoT) begin with the information collected from sensors. It is imperative to transmit high-quality sensor data for providing better services. It is also required to
[...] Read more.
The services provided to users in the environment associated with the Internet of Things (hereinafter referred to as IoT) begin with the information collected from sensors. It is imperative to transmit high-quality sensor data for providing better services. It is also required to collect data only from those authenticated sensors. Moreover, it is imperative to collect high-quality data on a sustainable and continuous basis in order to provide services anytime and anywhere in the IoT environment. Therefore, high-quality, authenticated sensor networks should be constructed. The most prominent routing protocol to enhance the energy consumption efficiency for the sustainable data collection in a sensor network is the LEACH routing protocol. The LEACH routing protocol transmits sensor data by measuring the energy of sensors and allocating sensor groups dynamically. However, these sensor networks have vulnerabilities such as key leakage, eavesdropping, replay attack and relay attack, given the nature of wireless network communication. A large number of security techniques have been studied in order to solve these vulnerabilities. Nonetheless, these studies still cannot support the dynamic sensor group allocation of the LEACH routing protocol. Furthermore, they are not suitable for the sensor nodes whose hardware computing ability and energy resources are limited. Therefore, this paper proposed a group sensor communication protocol that utilizes only the four fundamental arithmetic operations and logical operation for the sensor node authentication and secure data transmission. Through the security analysis, this paper verified that the proposed scheme was secure to the vulnerabilities resulting from the nature of wireless network communication. Moreover, this paper verified through the performance analysis that the proposed scheme could be utilized efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle GPU-Accelerated Foreground Segmentation and Labeling for Real-Time Video Surveillance
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 916; doi:10.3390/su8100916
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Real-time and accurate background modeling is an important researching topic in the fields of remote monitoring and video surveillance. Meanwhile, effective foreground detection is a preliminary requirement and decision-making basis for sustainable energy management, especially in smart meters. The environment monitoring results provide
[...] Read more.
Real-time and accurate background modeling is an important researching topic in the fields of remote monitoring and video surveillance. Meanwhile, effective foreground detection is a preliminary requirement and decision-making basis for sustainable energy management, especially in smart meters. The environment monitoring results provide a decision-making basis for energy-saving strategies. For real-time moving object detection in video, this paper applies a parallel computing technology to develop a feedback foreground–background segmentation method and a parallel connected component labeling (PCCL) algorithm. In the background modeling method, pixel-wise color histograms in graphics processing unit (GPU) memory is generated from sequential images. If a pixel color in the current image does not locate around the peaks of its histogram, it is segmented as a foreground pixel. From the foreground segmentation results, a PCCL algorithm is proposed to cluster the foreground pixels into several groups in order to distinguish separate blobs. Because the noisy spot and sparkle in the foreground segmentation results always contain a small quantity of pixels, the small blobs are removed as noise in order to refine the segmentation results. The proposed GPU-based image processing algorithms are implemented using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) toolkit. The testing results show a significant enhancement in both speed and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle FS-OpenSecurity: A Taxonomic Modeling of Security Threats in SDN for Future Sustainable Computing
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 919; doi:10.3390/su8090919
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Software Defined Networking (SDN) has brought many changes in terms of the interaction processes between systems and humans. It has become the key enabler of software defined architecture, which allows enterprises to build a highly agile Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. For Future Sustainability
[...] Read more.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) has brought many changes in terms of the interaction processes between systems and humans. It has become the key enabler of software defined architecture, which allows enterprises to build a highly agile Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. For Future Sustainability Computing (FSC), SDN needs to deliver on many information technology commitments—more automation, simplified design, increased agility, policy-based management, and network management bond to more liberal IT workflow systems. To address the sustainability problems, SDN needs to provide greater collaboration and tighter integration with networks, servers, and security teams that will have an impact on how enterprises design, plan, deploy and manage networks. In this paper, we propose FS-OpenSecurity, which is a new and pragmatic security architecture model. It consists of two novel methodologies, Software Defined Orchestrator (SDO) and SQUEAK, which offer a robust and secure architecture. The secure architecture is required for protection from diverse threats. Usually, security administrators need to handle each threat individually. However, handling threats automatically by adapting to the threat landscape is a critical demand. Therefore, the architecture must handle defensive processes automatically that are collaboratively based on intelligent external and internal information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Infrared Human Posture Recognition Method for Monitoring in Smart Homes Based on Hidden Markov Model
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 892; doi:10.3390/su8090892
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart homes are the most important sustainability technology of our future. In smart homes, intelligent monitoring is an important component. However, there is currently no effective method for human posture detection for monitoring in smart homes. So, in this paper, we provide an
[...] Read more.
Smart homes are the most important sustainability technology of our future. In smart homes, intelligent monitoring is an important component. However, there is currently no effective method for human posture detection for monitoring in smart homes. So, in this paper, we provide an infrared human posture recognition method for monitoring in sustainable smart homes based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). We also trained the model parameters. Our model can be used to effectively classify human postures. Compared with the traditional HMM, this paper puts forward a method to solve the problem of human posture recognition. This paper tries to establish a model of training data according to the characteristics of human postures. Accordingly, this complex problem can be decomposed. Thereby, it can reduce computational complexity. In practical applications, it can improve system performance. Through experimentation in a real environment, the model can identify the different body movement postures by observing the human posture sequence, matching identification and classification process. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective for human posture recognition. In addition, for human movement target detection, this paper puts forward a human movement target detection method based on a Gaussian mixture model. For human object contour extraction, this paper puts forward a human object contour extraction method based on the Sobel edge detection operator. Here, we have presented an experiment for human posture recognition, and have also examined our cloud-based monitoring system for elderly people using our method. We have used our method in our actual projects, and the experimental results show that our method is feasible and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 881; doi:10.3390/su8090881
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central
[...] Read more.
The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT)-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI), which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable and Practical Firmware Upgrade for Wireless Access Point Using Password-Based Authentication
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 876; doi:10.3390/su8090876
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless access points (WAPs) are devices that provide Internet connectivity to devices such as desktops, laptops, smartphones, and tablets. Hence, it is important to provide sufficient availability to devices and security for the traffic that is routed by a WAP. However, attackers can
[...] Read more.
Wireless access points (WAPs) are devices that provide Internet connectivity to devices such as desktops, laptops, smartphones, and tablets. Hence, it is important to provide sufficient availability to devices and security for the traffic that is routed by a WAP. However, attackers can decrease the network bandwidth or obtain the traffic including private data such as search histories, login information, and device usage patterns by exploiting the vulnerabilities in firmware upgrades to install malicious firmware. To address this problem, we propose a sustainable and practical firmware upgrade for a WAP using password-based authentication. The proposed upgrade protocol ensures security by adding freshness to the firmware whenever a firmware upgrade occurs. This freshness is different for each event and each firmware; therefore, even if the freshness of one firmware is exposed, the others are secure. In addition, confidentiality, integrity, and authentication are ensured. Furthermore, the proposed protocol can be easily implemented and adapted to WAPs. Experiments are performed to evaluate the upgrade time, resource usage, and code size in wired and wireless connected environments by implementing a prototype and analyzing the security of the protocol. The results show that the proposed upgrade is secure and practical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Leadership of Information Security Manager on the Effectiveness of Information Systems Security for Secure Sustainable Computing
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 638; doi:10.3390/su8070638
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 7 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information security has been predicted as a barrier for future sustainable computing. Regarding information security of secure sustainable computing, the role of information security managers has received attention. In particular, transformational leadership by information security managers should be stressed for persuading, directing, and
[...] Read more.
Information security has been predicted as a barrier for future sustainable computing. Regarding information security of secure sustainable computing, the role of information security managers has received attention. In particular, transformational leadership by information security managers should be stressed for persuading, directing, and controlling management and employees. This study shows that the transformational leadership (in forms such as idealized influence, individualized consideration, and inspirational motivation) of information security managers can improve the effectiveness of information security. The enforcement and relevance of information security policies could be mediating effects on the effectiveness of information security. This study collects data from governmental and public institutions in Korea. This study suggests the need for leadership education programs, and indicates that job training for information security managers should be conducted regularly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
Open AccessArticle Mining λ-Maximal Cliques from a Fuzzy Graph
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 553; doi:10.3390/su8060553
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The depletion of natural resources in the last century now threatens our planet and the life of future generations. For the sake of sustainable development, this paper pioneers an interesting and practical problem of dense substructure (i.e., maximal cliques) mining in
[...] Read more.
The depletion of natural resources in the last century now threatens our planet and the life of future generations. For the sake of sustainable development, this paper pioneers an interesting and practical problem of dense substructure (i.e., maximal cliques) mining in a fuzzy graph where the edges are weighted by the degree of membership. For parameter 0 λ 1 (also called fuzzy cut in fuzzy logic), a newly defined concept λ-maximal clique is introduced in a fuzzy graph. In order to detect the λ-maximal cliques from a fuzzy graph, an efficient mining algorithm based on Fuzzy Formal Concept Analysis (FFCA) is proposed. Extensive experimental evaluations are conducted for demonstrating the feasibility of the algorithm. In addition, a novel recommendation service based on an λ-maximal clique is provided for illustrating the sustainable usability of the problem addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Wearables: Wearable Technology for Enhancing the Quality of Human Life
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 466; doi:10.3390/su8050466
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations.
[...] Read more.
This paper aims to elicit insights about sustainable wearables by investigating recent advancements in wearable technology and their applications. Wearable technology has advanced considerably from a technical perspective, but it has stagnated due to barriers without penetrating wider society despite early positive expectations. This situation is the motivation behind the focus on studies by many research groups in recent years into wearable applications that can provide the best value from a human-oriented perspective. The expectation is that a new means to resolve the issue can be found from a viewpoint of sustainability; this is the main point of this paper. This paper first focuses on the trend of wearable technology like bodily status monitoring, multi-wearable device control, and smart networking between wearable sensors. Second, the development intention of such technology is investigated. Finally, this paper discusses about the applications of current wearable technology from the sustainable perspective, rather than detailed description of the component technologies employed in wearables. In this paper, the definition of sustainable wearables is discussed in the context of improving the quality of individual life, social impact, and social public interest; those wearable applications include the areas of wellness, healthcare, assistance for the visually impaired, disaster relief, and public safety. In the future, wearables will not be simple data trackers or fun accessories but will gain extended objectives and meanings that play a valuable role for individuals and societies. Successful and sustainable wearables will lead to positive changes for both individuals and societies overall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Load-Balancing Scheme for Inter-Sensor Convergence Processing of Routing Cooperation Topology
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 436; doi:10.3390/su8050436
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT) have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart
[...] Read more.
Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT) have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart devices such as smartphones. Data transmission is critical for big data collected from sensor nodes, such as Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs), where sensors move dynamically according to sensor mobility, or Fixed Sensor Nodes (FSNs), where sensor locations are decided by the users. False data transfer processing of big data results in topology lifespan reduction and data transfer delays. Hence, a variety of simulators and diverse load-balancing algorithms have been developed as protocol verification tools for topology lifespan maximization and effective data transfer processing. However, those previously developed simulators have limited functions, such as an event function for a specific sensor or a battery consumption rate test for sensor deployment. Moreover, since the previous load-balancing algorithms consider only the general traffic distribution and the number of connected nodes without considering the current topology condition, the sustainable load-balancing technique that takes into account the battery consumption rate of the dispersed sensor nodes is required. Therefore, this paper proposes the Sustainable Load-balancing Scheme (SLS), which maximizes the overall topology lifespan through effective and sustainable load-balancing of data transfer among the sensors. SLS is capable of maintaining an effective topology as it considers both the battery consumption rate of the sensors and the data transfer delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
Open AccessArticle Asymmetric Block Design-Based Neighbor Discovery Protocol in Sensor Networks
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 431; doi:10.3390/su8050431
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neighbor discovery is one of the emerging research areas in a wireless sensor network. After sensors are distributed, neighbor discovery is the first process to set up a communication channel with neighboring sensors. This paper proposes a new block design–based asymmetric neighbor discovery
[...] Read more.
Neighbor discovery is one of the emerging research areas in a wireless sensor network. After sensors are distributed, neighbor discovery is the first process to set up a communication channel with neighboring sensors. This paper proposes a new block design–based asymmetric neighbor discovery protocol for sensor networks. We borrow the concept of combinatorial block designs for our block combination scheme for neighbor discovery. First, we introduce an asymmetric neighbor discovery problem and define a target research question. Second, we propose a new asymmetric block design–based neighbor discovery protocol and explain how it works. Third, we analyze the worst-case neighbor discovery latency numerically between our protocol and some well-known protocols in the literature, and compare and evaluate the performance between the proposed protocol and others. Our protocol reveals that the worst-case latency is much lower than that of Disco and U-Connect. Finally, we conclude that the minimum number of slots per a neighbor schedule shows the lowest discovery time in terms of discovery latency and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced IT based Future Sustainable Computing)
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