Special Issue "Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes"
A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2013)
Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel
Micro Flow Chemistry and Process Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Phone: +31 40 247 2973
Interests: micro process technology; flow chemistry; process intensification; green processing; holistic evaluation; flow systems engineering; life cycle analysis; cost analysis
Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.
In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the numbering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).
New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.
Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.
Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.
- micro process technology
- milli process technology
- flow chemistry
- process intensification
- green engineering
- life cycle assessment
- cost analysis
- continuous processing
- novel process windows
- process design
- process control/-automation
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Small Scale Synthesis Exploiting Continuous Flow Reaction Technology
Author: Paul Watts
Affiliation: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa; E-Mail: Paul.Watts@nmmu.ac.za
Abstract: This article explains the advantages of micro reactors and flow reactors as tools for conducting organic synthesis, specifically focussing on how the technology may be used in research and small scale production. A selection of examples are taken from the literature to illustrate how continuous flow reactors enables chemists to perform their reactions more efficiently than batch processes, opening up new manufacturing opportunities.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: What Is a Microfluidic Device? An Exploration of the Factors that Distinguish Microfluidic Reactor Formats from other Flow Systems
Author: Robert Charles Russell Wootton
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093, Zurich, Switzerland; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Microfluidic devices have shown a wide range of appications in analytical and synthetic systems over the last few decades. However some ambiguity remains as to where microfluidics ends and meso/millifluidics begins. In this paper we review examples of flow systems of different scales and seek to come to a theoretical understanding of what constitutes a microfluidic device and what the key properties and abilities of such a system might be.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Stability Analysis of Multiphase Slug Flow in Microchannels
Authors: Nicolai Antweiler *, Alejandro-Augusto Munera-Parra †, Rachit Nagpal † and David W. Agar
Affiliation: Department of Biochemical und Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Technical University Dortmund, Germany; E-Mails: Nicolai.email@example.com; Alejandro-Augusto.Munera-Parra@bci.tu-dortmund.de; Rachit.Nagpal@bci.tu-dortmund.de; David.Agar@bci.tu-dortmund.de
Abstract: Conducting multiphase reactions in micro-reactors is a promising strategy for intensifying chemical and biochemical processes. A major unresolved challenge is to exploit the considerable benefits offered by micro-scale operation for industrial scale throughputs by numbering-up, whilst retaining the underlying advantageous flow characteristics of the single channel system in multiple parallel channels. Fabrication and installation tolerances in the individual micro-channels result in different pressure losses and thus a fluid maldistribution. In this work, an additional source of maldistribution, namely the flow multiplicities which can arise in a multiphase reactive or extractive flow in otherwise identical micro-channels, was investigated. A detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the flow stability with and without reaction for both gas-liquid and liquid-liquid slug flow has been developed. The model has been validated using the extraction of acetic acid from n-heptane with the ionic liquid 1 Ethyl 3 methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate. The results clearly demonstrate that the coupling between flow structure, the extent of reaction/extraction and pressure drop can result in multiple operating states thus necessitating an active measurement and control concept to ensure uniform behavior and optimal performance.
Keywords: numbering-up; slug flow; flow stability; multiplicities; extraction
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Enhanced Performance of Oxidation of Rosalva (9-decen-1-ol) to Costenal (9-decenal) on Porous Silicon Supported Silver Catalyst in a Microstructured Reactor
Authors: Enhong Cao, Noor Al-Rifai and Asterios Gavriilidis
Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering,
University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE, UK; E-Mails: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: We demonstrated the use of metal-assisted HF chemical etching as an easy and cheap way to produce porous silicon structure in microreactor channels. The oxidation of rosalva to its aldehyde (costenal) on silver catalyst was performed in microstructured reactors at temperature of 375-475C. Significant enhancement of the reaction was observed on the silver supported on porous silicon. The average reactivity of rosalva on the porous silicon supported silver was 5.7-6.4 times of that on Film-Ag at 450C. Under a similar inlet gas concentration at 450C, a conversion of 97% and a selectivity of 95% to costenal was obtained in a microreactor at a residence time of 0.018 s, by comparison to 70% conversion and 73% selectivity in a conventional lab glass packed bed reactor at a residence time of 0.028 s ( ). Different catalytic activities of rosalva oxidation were observed in the porous silicon supported silver and in the thin film silver which could be due to the effect of silver particle size, shape and surface morphology and worthwhile for further investigation.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Microreactor-Assisted Nanomaterial Deposition
Authors: Changho Choi, Brian K. Paul and Chih-hung Chang
Affiliations: Oregon Process Innovation Center/Microproduct Breakthrough Institute, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; E-Mails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; Chih-Hung.Chang@oregonstate.edu
Abstract: Microreactor technology has been shown to provide unique capabilities for chemical synthesis including precise and rapid changes in reaction conditions, spatial separation of reagent introduction, unparalleled temporal resolution, and a more linear scale up pathway than conventional batch reactor. Application of microreactor technology to the solution-based synthesis of nanomaterials offers a facile route to manufacturing scale-up holding promise for low-cost nanotechnology. Microreactor-Assisted Nanomaterial Deposition (MAND) processes apply the merits of microreactor technology to solution-phase nanomaterial synthesis, purification, functionalization, and deposition. The MAND architecture has been shown to provide a versatile and scalable manufacturing platform for synthesizing and depositing colloidal nanomaterials to produce functional nanostructures. In this paper, we review the recent progress of two MAND strategies. Microreactor-Assisted Nanoparticle Deposition involves the use of microreactor technology to implement real-time nucleation, growth, purification, and functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) for the deposition and assembly of NP films and structures. Alternatively, Microreactor-Assisted Solution Deposition involves the use of microreactor technology to produce point-of-use reactive fluxes of short-life, intermediate molecules for the heterogeneous growth of thin films on a wide variety of substrates.
Last update: 15 October 2013