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Processes 2014, 2(1), 238-264; doi:10.3390/pr2010238
Article

Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink

†,*  and
Received: 31 December 2013; in revised form: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
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Abstract: Many products from the fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries are currently manufactured batch-wise in multi-product plants. However, this processing scheme suffers from severe drawbacks, such as a high specific energy demand, cleaning costs and high staff requirements. Transferring batch into continuous campaign productions may overcome these drawbacks. Using the case of writing ink, such a continuous manufacturing scheme was developed employing micro- and milli-structured components in order to intensify certain unit operations. In this paper, an ecological and economic assessment of both production concepts considering all lifecycle stages is presented. The aim of our work is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two multi-product plants and to derive recommendations for the most efficient design and operation of a continuous campaign manufacturing plant. The results show that lower environmental impacts are related to continuous processing, which is due to the option for energy integration in this case. Furthermore, in the economic assessment, continuous processing proved to be economically viable. In this case, reduced staff requirements based on a highly automated manufacturing plant are the key to lower personnel costs. In general, the results emphasize the importance of such micro-/milli-continuous multi-product plants for the future manufacturing of newly developed products in the mentioned industries.
Keywords: flow chemistry; batch vs. continuous manufacturing; microprocessing; cost analysis; LCA; fine chemicals; pharmaceuticals; multi-product plant flow chemistry; batch vs. continuous manufacturing; microprocessing; cost analysis; LCA; fine chemicals; pharmaceuticals; multi-product plant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grundemann, L.; Scholl, S. Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink. Processes 2014, 2, 238-264.

AMA Style

Grundemann L, Scholl S. Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink. Processes. 2014; 2(1):238-264.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grundemann, Laura; Scholl, Stephan. 2014. "Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink." Processes 2, no. 1: 238-264.

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