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Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1649-1661; doi:10.3390/nu6041649
Article

High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal

1
,
1,* , 2
,
3
,
1
 and
Jr. 1
1 Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA 2 Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project-Sarlahi, Tripureswor, Kathmandu 45104, Nepal 3 Program in International and Community Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition)
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Abstract

Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; homocysteine; Nepal metabolic syndrome; homocysteine; Nepal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Yakub, M.; Schulze, K.J.; Khatry, S.K.; Stewart, C.P.; Christian, P.; West, K.P., Jr. High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1649-1661.

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