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Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1691-1700; doi:10.3390/nu6041691

Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: Findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010

Sanjeevani College of Medical Sciences, Butwal, Rupandehi, Nepal
National Hospital Guido Valadares, Ministry of Health, Dili, Timor Leste
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6153, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [534 KB, uploaded 22 April 2014]


Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; demographic and health survey; exclusive breastfeeding; Timor-Leste breastfeeding; demographic and health survey; exclusive breastfeeding; Timor-Leste
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Khanal, V.; da Cruz, J.L.N.B.; Karkee, R.; Lee, A.H. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: Findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1691-1700.

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