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Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1539-1553; doi:10.3390/nu6041539

Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition)
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The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.
Keywords: dietary pattern; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); school-aged children; Korean dietary pattern; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); school-aged children; Korean
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Woo, H.D.; Kim, D.W.; Hong, Y.-S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Seo, J.-H.; Choe, B.M.; Park, J.H.; Kang, J.-W.; Yoo, J.-H.; Chueh, H.W.; Lee, J.H.; Kwak, M.J.; Kim, J. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Nutrients 2014, 6, 1539-1553.

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