Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1539-1553; doi:10.3390/nu6041539

Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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Received: 12 February 2014; in revised form: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition)
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Abstract: The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.
Keywords: dietary pattern; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); school-aged children; Korean
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MDPI and ACS Style

Woo, H.D.; Kim, D.W.; Hong, Y.-S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Seo, J.-H.; Choe, B.M.; Park, J.H.; Kang, J.-W.; Yoo, J.-H.; Chueh, H.W.; Lee, J.H.; Kwak, M.J.; Kim, J. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Nutrients 2014, 6, 1539-1553.

AMA Style

Woo HD, Kim DW, Hong Y-S, Kim Y-M, Seo J-H, Choe BM, Park JH, Kang J-W, Yoo J-H, Chueh HW, Lee JH, Kwak MJ, Kim J. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Nutrients. 2014; 6(4):1539-1553.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Woo, Hae D.; Kim, Dong W.; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong M.; Park, Jae H.; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee W.; Lee, Jung H.; Kwak, Min J.; Kim, Jeongseon. 2014. "Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Nutrients 6, no. 4: 1539-1553.

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