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Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4414-4428; doi:10.3390/nu5114414
Article

Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral Status in Early Childhood

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Received: 27 August 2013; in revised form: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition)
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Abstract: Breastfeeding during infancy may have beneficial effects on various developmental outcomes in childhood. In this study, exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive complementary foods from the age of 4 months in addition to breast milk (CF, n = 60), or to exclusively breastfeed to 6 months (EBF, n = 59). At 18 months and again at 30–35 months of age, the children were evaluated with the Parent’s Evaluation of Developmental Status questionnaire (PEDS) and the Brigance Screens-II. The parents completed the PEDS questionnaire at both time intervals and the children underwent the Brigance Screens-II at 30–35 months. At 30–35 months, no significant differences were seen in developmental scores from the Brigance screening test (p = 0.82). However, at 30–35 months a smaller percentage of parents in group CF (2%) had concerns about their children’s gross motor development compared to those in group EBF (19%; p = 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for differences in pre-randomization characteristics (p = 0.03). No sustained effect of a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was seen on selected measures of developmental and behavioral status at 18 months, although at 30–35 months, a smaller percentage of parents of children introduced to complementary foods at four months of age expressed concerns about their gross motor development.
Keywords: early childhood; exclusive breastfeeding; complementary feeding; developmental status; behavior; randomized trial early childhood; exclusive breastfeeding; complementary feeding; developmental status; behavior; randomized trial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jonsdottir, O.H.; Thorsdottir, I.; Gunnlaugsson, G.; Fewtrell, M.S.; Hibberd, P.L.; Kleinman, R.E. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral Status in Early Childhood. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4414-4428.

AMA Style

Jonsdottir OH, Thorsdottir I, Gunnlaugsson G, Fewtrell MS, Hibberd PL, Kleinman RE. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral Status in Early Childhood. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4414-4428.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jonsdottir, Olof H.; Thorsdottir, Inga; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Fewtrell, Mary S.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Kleinman, Ronald E. 2013. "Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral Status in Early Childhood." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4414-4428.



Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert