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Special Issue "Diversity of Terpenoids"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Motoo Tori

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-88-602-8462
Fax: +81 88 655 3051
Interests: natural product chemistry; isolation; structure determination; synthesis; terpenoids; samarium; ruthenium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, a number of terpenoids have been isolated from, not only terrestrial plants, but also marine organisms, and their structures have been determined, as well as their base sequences. The diversity of terpenoids fascinates scientists working in the field, as it is interesting to study the chemistry of terpenoids, which have a variety of structures, and the field is developing with enormous velocity. We now plan to edit a Special Issue of Molecules, which will be a good chance for scientists to publish recent results on (i) isolation, (ii) structure determination, (iii) DNA, (iv) synthesis, (v) biosynthesis, (vi) enzymatic process, (vii) biotransformation, and (viii) biological activity, from all around the world. We aim to provide a platform to present the valuable results of your research in these areas. Please submit reports of your results, and share your knowledge with the community.

Prof. Dr. Motoo Tori
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • terpenoids
  • isolation
  • structure
  • diversity
  • synthesis
  • DNA
  • biotransformation
  • biosynthesis

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Friedelin in Maytenus ilicifolia Is Produced by Friedelin Synthase Isoforms
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030700
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Triterpenes are interesting compounds because they play an important role in cell homeostasis and a wide variety exhibiting defense functions is produced by plant secondary metabolism. Those same plant secondary metabolites also exhibit biological properties with promising therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and antitumor
[...] Read more.
Triterpenes are interesting compounds because they play an important role in cell homeostasis and a wide variety exhibiting defense functions is produced by plant secondary metabolism. Those same plant secondary metabolites also exhibit biological properties with promising therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. Friedelin is a triterpene ketone with anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities and it is a precursor of relevant antitumor quinonemethides. Although many triterpene synthases have been described, only two friedelin synthases were characterized and there is no information about their genomic features and alleles. In the present work, we aimed to identify the gene and new isoforms of friedelin synthase in Maytenus ilicifolia leaves to be functionally characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene sequence analysis elucidated the exon/intron structure and confirmed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms with four non-synonymous mutations outside the active site of the enzyme. Therefore, two new isoforms were observed and the heterologous production of the enzymes in yeast showed similar production of friedelin. This first description of different alleles of the gene of friedelin synthase in M. ilicifolia can guide their validation as markers for friedelin-producer specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Nigella damascena L. Essential Oil—A Valuable Source of β-Elemene for Antimicrobial Testing
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020256
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract
The most commonly used plant source of β-elemene is Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen & C. Ling (syn. of Curcuma aromatic Salisb.) with its content in supercritical CO2 extract up to 27.83%. However, the other rich source of this compound is Nigella
[...] Read more.
The most commonly used plant source of β-elemene is Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen & C. Ling (syn. of Curcuma aromatic Salisb.) with its content in supercritical CO2 extract up to 27.83%. However, the other rich source of this compound is Nigella damascena L. essential oil, in which β-elemene accounts for 47%. In this work, the effective protocol for preparative isolation of β-elemene from a new source—N. damascena essential oil—using high performance counter-current chromatography HPCCC was elaborated. Furthermore, since sesquiterpens are known as potent antimicrobials, the need for finding new agents designed to combat multi-drug resistant strains was addressed and the purified target compound and the essential oil were tested for its activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and mycobacterial strains. The application of the mixture of petroleum ether, acetonitrile, and acetone in the ratio 2:1.5:0.5 (v/v) in the reversed phase mode yielded β-elemene with high purity in 70 min. The results obtained for antimicrobial assay clearly indicated that N. damascena essential oil and isolated β-elemene exert action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in the Leaves of 14 Compositae Plants
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010166
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass
[...] Read more.
The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 213 constituents were detected and tentatively identified in the leaf extracts, and terpenoids (especially monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives), accounting for 40.45–90.38% of the total compounds, were the main components. The quantitative results revealed diverse concentrations and compositions of the chemical constituents between species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that different groups of these Compositae plants were characterized by main components of α-thujone, germacrene D, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene, and camphor, for example. On the other hand, cluster memberships corresponding to the molecular phylogenetic framework, were found by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the terpenoid composition of the tested species. These results provide a phytochemical foundation for the use of these scented Compositae plants, and for the further study of the chemotaxonomy and differential metabolism of Compositae species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Chemical Diversity of Algerian Plants: Three New Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from Launaea acanthoclada Roots
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
The chemical study of Launaea acanthoclada from South-East Algeria led to the isolation of twelve oxygenated terpenoid compounds, including three new pentacyclic triterpenoids 13 with either lupane or ursane rearranged skeletons. The structure and the stereochemistry of these compounds were established
[...] Read more.
The chemical study of Launaea acanthoclada from South-East Algeria led to the isolation of twelve oxygenated terpenoid compounds, including three new pentacyclic triterpenoids 13 with either lupane or ursane rearranged skeletons. The structure and the stereochemistry of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, including NMR techniques. The chemical pattern of L. acanthoclada is in accordance with the triterpenoid scenario of the genus Launaea embracing to date lupane, oleane, ursane and taraxastane skeletons. However, the carbon frameworks exhibited by new compounds 13 have never been reported from Launaea species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Labdane-Type Diterpenes, Galangalditerpenes A–C, with Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity from the Fruit of Alpinia galanga
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122279
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In our continuing study of biologically active natural products from the fruit of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae), we newly isolated three new labdane-type diterpenes, termed galangalditerpenes A–C (13), along with four known sesquiterpenes (47) and two
[...] Read more.
In our continuing study of biologically active natural products from the fruit of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae), we newly isolated three new labdane-type diterpenes, termed galangalditerpenes A–C (13), along with four known sesquiterpenes (47) and two diterpenes (8 and 9). The stereostructures of 13 were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic properties. The melanogenesis inhibitory activities in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells of these isolates, including the new diterpenes (13, IC50 = 4.4, 8.6, and 4.6 μM, respectively), were found to be more than 6–87-fold higher than that of arbutin (174 μM), a commercially available positive control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Acid-Induced Rearrangement of Epoxygermacranolides: Synthesis of Furanoheliangolides and Cadinanes from Nobilin
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122252
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The acid-induced rearrangement of three epoxyderivatives of nobilin 1, the most abundant sesquiterpene lactone in Anthemis nobilis flowers, was investigated. From the 1,10-epoxyderivative 2, furanoheliangolide 5 was obtained, while the 4,5-epoxy group of 3 did not react. Conversely, when the 3-hydroxy
[...] Read more.
The acid-induced rearrangement of three epoxyderivatives of nobilin 1, the most abundant sesquiterpene lactone in Anthemis nobilis flowers, was investigated. From the 1,10-epoxyderivative 2, furanoheliangolide 5 was obtained, while the 4,5-epoxy group of 3 did not react. Conversely, when the 3-hydroxy function of nobilin was acetylated (12), the 4,5-epoxy derivative did cyclize into cadinanes (15 and 16) under Lewis acid catalysis. The reactivity of the 4,5- and 1,10-epoxy derivatives of nobilin (2 and 3) was compared with that of parthenolide, and rationalized on the basis of quantum chemical calculations. All isolated reaction products were fully characterized by spectroscopic and computational methods, and their in vitro anti-protozoal activity was evaluated. The paper could provide new insights into the biosynthesis of this class of natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Proliferative Activity of Triterpenoids and Sterols Isolated from Alstonia scholaris against Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122119
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: In China and South Asia, Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that has been historically used in traditional ethnopharmacy to treat infectious diseases. Although various pharmacological activities have been reported, the anti-lung cancer components of A. scholaris have not
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: In China and South Asia, Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that has been historically used in traditional ethnopharmacy to treat infectious diseases. Although various pharmacological activities have been reported, the anti-lung cancer components of A. scholaris have not yet been identified. The objective of this study is to evaluate the active components of the leaf extract of A. scholaris, and assess the anti-proliferation effects of isolated compounds against non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells; (2) Methods: NMR was used to identify the chemical constitutes isolated from the leaf extract of A. scholaris. The anti-proliferative activity of compounds against non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; (3) Results: Eight triterpenoids and five sterols were isolated from the hexane portion of A. scholaris, and structurally identified as: (1) ursolic acid, (2) oleanolic acid, (3) betulinic acid, (4) betulin, (5) 2β,3β,28-lup-20(29)-ene-triol, (6) lupeol, (7) β-amyrin, (8) α-amyrin, (9) poriferasterol, (10) epicampesterol, (11) β-sitosterol, (12) 6β-hydroxy-4-stigmasten-3-one, and (13) ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β-triol. Compound 5 was isolated from a plant source for the first time. In addition, compounds 9, 10, 12, and 13 were also isolated from A. scholaris for the first time. Ursolic acid, betulinic acid, betulin, and 2β,3β,28-lup-20(29)-ene-triol showed anti-proliferative activity against NSCLC, with IC50 of 39.8, 40.1, 240.5 and 172.6 μM, respectively.; (4) Conclusion: These findings reflect that pentacyclic triterpenoids are the anti-lung cancer chemicals in A. scholaris. The ability of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, betulin, and 2β,3β,28-lup-20(29)-ene-triol to inhibit the proliferative activity of NSCLC can constitute a valuable group of therapeutic agents in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Terpenoids and Phenylpropanoids in Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, L. nelumbifolia, and L. limprichtii
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122062
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
The diversity in root chemicals and evolutionally neutral DNA regions in the complex of Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, and L. nelumbifolia (the d/k/n complex) was studied using eight samples collected in central and northern Sichuan Province of China. Cacalol (14
[...] Read more.
The diversity in root chemicals and evolutionally neutral DNA regions in the complex of Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, and L. nelumbifolia (the d/k/n complex) was studied using eight samples collected in central and northern Sichuan Province of China. Cacalol (14) and epicacalone (15), rearranged eremophilanes, were isolated from the complex for the first time. Two new phenylpropanoids were also obtained. Seven of the eight samples produced phenylpropanoids and the other produced lupeol alone. Two of the seven samples also produced furanoeremophilanes or their derivatives and one produced oplopanes. The geographical distribution of the sesquiterpene-producing populations suggests that the production of sesquiterpenes evolved independently in separate regions. L. limprichtii collected in northern Sichuan was also analyzed and its chemical composition and the sequence of internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) in the ribosomal RNA gene cluster were found to be similar to that in the d/k/n complex and L. yunnanensis, which are morphologically similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessCommunication Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Ultrasonic Extraction with the Solvent Sequences in Chemical Profiling of Allium ursinum L. Honey
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111909
Received: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
A volatile profile of ramson (wild garlic, Allium ursinum L.) honey was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/GC-MS) analyses. The headspace was dominated by linalool derivatives: cis- and trans
[...] Read more.
A volatile profile of ramson (wild garlic, Allium ursinum L.) honey was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/GC-MS) analyses. The headspace was dominated by linalool derivatives: cis- and trans-linalool oxides (25.3%; 9.2%), hotrienol (12.7%), and linalool (5.8%). Besides direct extraction with dichloromethane and pentane/diethyl ether mixture (1:2, v/v), two solvent sequences (I: pentane → diethyl ether; II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane) were applied. Striking differences were noted among the obtained chemical profiles. The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone (25.8–36.8%) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (11.6–16.6%) as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1′,t-2′,c-4′-trihydroxy-2′,6′,6′-trimethylcyclohexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts (18.3–49.1%). Therefore, combination of different solvents was crucial for the comprehensive investigation of volatile organic compounds in this honey type. This particular magastigmane was previously reported only in thymus honey and hydroquinone in vipers bugloss honey, while a combination of the mentioned predominant compounds is unique for A. ursinum honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Characterization, Function, and Transcriptional Profiling Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Gene (GbHMGS1) towards Stresses and Exogenous Hormone Treatments in Ginkgo biloba
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101706
Received: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. In this study, A HMGS gene (designated as GbHMGS1) was cloned from Ginkgo biloba for the first time. GbHMGS1
[...] Read more.
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. In this study, A HMGS gene (designated as GbHMGS1) was cloned from Ginkgo biloba for the first time. GbHMGS1 contained a 1422-bp open-reading frame encoding 474 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that GbHMGS1 was extensively homologous to HMGSs from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the GbHMGS1 belonged to the plant HMGS superfamily, sharing a common evolutionary ancestor with other HMGSs, and had a further relationship with other gymnosperm species. The yeast complement assay of GbHMGS1 in HMGS-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YSC6274 demonstrated that GbHMGS1 gene encodes a functional HMGS enzyme. The recombinant protein of GbHMGS1 was successfully expressed in E. coli. The in vitro enzyme activity assay showed that the kcat and Km values of GbHMGS1 were 195.4 min−1 and 689 μM, respectively. GbHMGS1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, female flowers, male flowers and fruits. The transcript accumulation for GbHMGS1 was highest in the leaves. Expression profiling analyses revealed that GbHMGS1 expression was induced by abiotic stresses (ultraviolet B and cold) and hormone treatments (salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon) in G. biloba, indicating that GbHMGS1 gene was involved in the response to environmental stresses and plant hormones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Gypmacrophin A, a Rare Pentacyclic Sesterterpenoid, Together with Three Depsides, Functioned as New Chemical Evidence for Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal Identification
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101675
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
The phytochemical investigation on 1 g of materials from Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal resulted in the discovery of gypmacrophin A, a rare pentacyclic sesterterpenoid; brialmontin III, a new polysubstituted depside and two known ones, brialmontins I and II. The structure and absolute configurations
[...] Read more.
The phytochemical investigation on 1 g of materials from Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal resulted in the discovery of gypmacrophin A, a rare pentacyclic sesterterpenoid; brialmontin III, a new polysubstituted depside and two known ones, brialmontins I and II. The structure and absolute configurations of gypmacrophin A were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and computational methods. Gypmacrophin A showed weak inhibition of AchE with an IC50 value of 32.03 μM. The four compounds provided new chemical evidence for G. macrophylla identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Three New Sesquiterpene Glycosides from the Rhizomes of Trillium tschonoskii
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081283
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new sesquiterpene glycosides, possessing a rare aglycone with a sulfonyl between C-1 and C-15 positions, named 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen
[...] Read more.
Three new sesquiterpene glycosides, possessing a rare aglycone with a sulfonyl between C-1 and C-15 positions, named 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), and 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-6′-O-acetyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), respectively, were isolated from the rhizomes of Trillium tschonoskii. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. The cytotoxic properties of the three compounds were investigated using human hepatic L02 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071139
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and
[...] Read more.
In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and β-santalol as the active components. The toxicity (median tolerance limit (TLm) after 24 h at 1.9 ppm) of α-santalol was comparable with that of a positive control, inulavosin (TLm after 24 h at 1.3 ppm). These fish toxic compounds including inulavosin were also found to show a significant antifungal effect against a dermatophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum. Based on a similarity of the morphological change of the immobilized Trichophyton hyphae in scanning electron micrographs between treatments with α-santalol and griseofulvin (used as the positive control), inhibitory effect of α-santalol on mitosis (the antifungal mechanism proposed for griseofulvin) was assessed using sea urchin embryos. As a result, α-santalol was revealed to be a potent antimitotic agent induced by interference with microtubule assembly. These data suggested that α-santalol or sandalwood oil would be promising to further practically investigate as therapeutic agent for cancers as well as fungal skin infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Saponins from Different Phytolaccaceae Species and Their Antiproliferative Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071077
Received: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The quality and the efficacy of herbal medicine are of great concern especially with the increase in their global use. Medicinal plants of different species or collected from different geographical regions have shown variations in both their contents and pharmacological activities due to
[...] Read more.
The quality and the efficacy of herbal medicine are of great concern especially with the increase in their global use. Medicinal plants of different species or collected from different geographical regions have shown variations in both their contents and pharmacological activities due to the differences in the environmental conditions of the collected sites. In this study, roots of Phytolacca acinosa found in different provinces in south China (Sichuan and Shandong) and a species of Phytolacca americana were investigated. To ensure a maximum yield of the major compounds, the extraction method and conditions were optimized. The preeminent method of extraction in this analysis was determined to be the ultrasound-assisted method with specific conditions as follows: ethanol-H2O (1:1, v/v), with a solvent: sample ratio of 1:8, and extraction was performed 3 times, each for 30 min. Under these conditions, samples from the different regions varied both in quantity and quality via the LC-MS analysis. A total of 60 triterpenoid saponins were detected within the three samples, among which 22 were identified as common in the three samples. The amounts of these common triterpenoid saponin identified varied across the samples. Moreover, the analysis led to the detection of some novel compounds that have not yet been reported in this family, while other compounds differ in their fragmentation pathways compared to previous literature. To further divulge the correlations between the bioactivities in these three samples and the quantity and quality of their bioactive components, a cytotoxic analysis was thus carried out with two cancer cell lines, and SGC-7901 and Hep G2, which evidently showed remarkable differences in their anti-proliferative activities with respect to the IC50 value. Samples of P. acinosa from Sichuan showed higher values in both cell lines (27.20 ± 1.60 and 25.59 ± 1.63 µg/mL) compared to those of Shandong and P. americana. For the first time, analysis and comparison of both interspecies and of different species in this family were carried out. This study will significantly contribute to the quality insurance of herbal medicine, especially in the Phytolaccaceae family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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