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Special Issue "Diversity of Terpenoids"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Motoo Tori

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-88-602-8462
Fax: +81 88 655 3051
Interests: natural product chemistry; isolation; structure determination; synthesis; terpenoids; samarium; ruthenium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, a number of terpenoids have been isolated from, not only terrestrial plants, but also marine organisms, and their structures have been determined, as well as their base sequences. The diversity of terpenoids fascinates scientists working in the field, as it is interesting to study the chemistry of terpenoids, which have a variety of structures, and the field is developing with enormous velocity. We now plan to edit a Special Issue of Molecules, which will be a good chance for scientists to publish recent results on (i) isolation, (ii) structure determination, (iii) DNA, (iv) synthesis, (v) biosynthesis, (vi) enzymatic process, (vii) biotransformation, and (viii) biological activity, from all around the world. We aim to provide a platform to present the valuable results of your research in these areas. Please submit reports of your results, and share your knowledge with the community.

Prof. Dr. Motoo Tori
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • terpenoids
  • isolation
  • structure
  • diversity
  • synthesis
  • DNA
  • biotransformation
  • biosynthesis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Ultrasonic Extraction with the Solvent Sequences in Chemical Profiling of Allium ursinum L. Honey
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1909; doi:10.3390/molecules22111909
Received: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
A volatile profile of ramson (wild garlic, Allium ursinum L.) honey was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/GC-MS) analyses. The headspace was dominated by linalool derivatives: cis- and trans
[...] Read more.
A volatile profile of ramson (wild garlic, Allium ursinum L.) honey was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/GC-MS) analyses. The headspace was dominated by linalool derivatives: cis- and trans-linalool oxides (25.3%; 9.2%), hotrienol (12.7%), and linalool (5.8%). Besides direct extraction with dichloromethane and pentane/diethyl ether mixture (1:2, v/v), two solvent sequences (I: pentane → diethyl ether; II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane) were applied. Striking differences were noted among the obtained chemical profiles. The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone (25.8–36.8%) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (11.6–16.6%) as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1′,t-2′,c-4′-trihydroxy-2′,6′,6′-trimethylcyclohexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts (18.3–49.1%). Therefore, combination of different solvents was crucial for the comprehensive investigation of volatile organic compounds in this honey type. This particular magastigmane was previously reported only in thymus honey and hydroquinone in vipers bugloss honey, while a combination of the mentioned predominant compounds is unique for A. ursinum honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Characterization, Function, and Transcriptional Profiling Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Gene (GbHMGS1) towards Stresses and Exogenous Hormone Treatments in Ginkgo biloba
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1706; doi:10.3390/molecules22101706
Received: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. In this study, A HMGS gene (designated as GbHMGS1) was cloned from Ginkgo biloba for the first time. GbHMGS1
[...] Read more.
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the mevalonate pathway as it catalyzes the condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. In this study, A HMGS gene (designated as GbHMGS1) was cloned from Ginkgo biloba for the first time. GbHMGS1 contained a 1422-bp open-reading frame encoding 474 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that GbHMGS1 was extensively homologous to HMGSs from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the GbHMGS1 belonged to the plant HMGS superfamily, sharing a common evolutionary ancestor with other HMGSs, and had a further relationship with other gymnosperm species. The yeast complement assay of GbHMGS1 in HMGS-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YSC6274 demonstrated that GbHMGS1 gene encodes a functional HMGS enzyme. The recombinant protein of GbHMGS1 was successfully expressed in E. coli. The in vitro enzyme activity assay showed that the kcat and Km values of GbHMGS1 were 195.4 min−1 and 689 μM, respectively. GbHMGS1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, female flowers, male flowers and fruits. The transcript accumulation for GbHMGS1 was highest in the leaves. Expression profiling analyses revealed that GbHMGS1 expression was induced by abiotic stresses (ultraviolet B and cold) and hormone treatments (salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon) in G. biloba, indicating that GbHMGS1 gene was involved in the response to environmental stresses and plant hormones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Gypmacrophin A, a Rare Pentacyclic Sesterterpenoid, Together with Three Depsides, Functioned as New Chemical Evidence for Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal Identification
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1675; doi:10.3390/molecules22101675
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
The phytochemical investigation on 1 g of materials from Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal resulted in the discovery of gypmacrophin A, a rare pentacyclic sesterterpenoid; brialmontin III, a new polysubstituted depside and two known ones, brialmontins I and II. The structure and absolute configurations
[...] Read more.
The phytochemical investigation on 1 g of materials from Gypsoplaca macrophylla (Zahlbr.) Timdal resulted in the discovery of gypmacrophin A, a rare pentacyclic sesterterpenoid; brialmontin III, a new polysubstituted depside and two known ones, brialmontins I and II. The structure and absolute configurations of gypmacrophin A were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and computational methods. Gypmacrophin A showed weak inhibition of AchE with an IC50 value of 32.03 μM. The four compounds provided new chemical evidence for G. macrophylla identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Three New Sesquiterpene Glycosides from the Rhizomes of Trillium tschonoskii
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1283; doi:10.3390/molecules22081283
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Three new sesquiterpene glycosides, possessing a rare aglycone with a sulfonyl between C-1 and C-15 positions, named 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen
[...] Read more.
Three new sesquiterpene glycosides, possessing a rare aglycone with a sulfonyl between C-1 and C-15 positions, named 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), and 3-(3′E-7′R,8′-dihydroxy-4′,8′-dimethyl-3′-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-6′-O-acetyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), respectively, were isolated from the rhizomes of Trillium tschonoskii. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. The cytotoxic properties of the three compounds were investigated using human hepatic L02 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1139; doi:10.3390/molecules22071139
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and
[...] Read more.
In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and β-santalol as the active components. The toxicity (median tolerance limit (TLm) after 24 h at 1.9 ppm) of α-santalol was comparable with that of a positive control, inulavosin (TLm after 24 h at 1.3 ppm). These fish toxic compounds including inulavosin were also found to show a significant antifungal effect against a dermatophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum. Based on a similarity of the morphological change of the immobilized Trichophyton hyphae in scanning electron micrographs between treatments with α-santalol and griseofulvin (used as the positive control), inhibitory effect of α-santalol on mitosis (the antifungal mechanism proposed for griseofulvin) was assessed using sea urchin embryos. As a result, α-santalol was revealed to be a potent antimitotic agent induced by interference with microtubule assembly. These data suggested that α-santalol or sandalwood oil would be promising to further practically investigate as therapeutic agent for cancers as well as fungal skin infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Saponins from Different Phytolaccaceae Species and Their Antiproliferative Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1077; doi:10.3390/molecules22071077
Received: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
The quality and the efficacy of herbal medicine are of great concern especially with the increase in their global use. Medicinal plants of different species or collected from different geographical regions have shown variations in both their contents and pharmacological activities due to
[...] Read more.
The quality and the efficacy of herbal medicine are of great concern especially with the increase in their global use. Medicinal plants of different species or collected from different geographical regions have shown variations in both their contents and pharmacological activities due to the differences in the environmental conditions of the collected sites. In this study, roots of Phytolacca acinosa found in different provinces in south China (Sichuan and Shandong) and a species of Phytolacca americana were investigated. To ensure a maximum yield of the major compounds, the extraction method and conditions were optimized. The preeminent method of extraction in this analysis was determined to be the ultrasound-assisted method with specific conditions as follows: ethanol-H2O (1:1, v/v), with a solvent: sample ratio of 1:8, and extraction was performed 3 times, each for 30 min. Under these conditions, samples from the different regions varied both in quantity and quality via the LC-MS analysis. A total of 60 triterpenoid saponins were detected within the three samples, among which 22 were identified as common in the three samples. The amounts of these common triterpenoid saponin identified varied across the samples. Moreover, the analysis led to the detection of some novel compounds that have not yet been reported in this family, while other compounds differ in their fragmentation pathways compared to previous literature. To further divulge the correlations between the bioactivities in these three samples and the quantity and quality of their bioactive components, a cytotoxic analysis was thus carried out with two cancer cell lines, and SGC-7901 and Hep G2, which evidently showed remarkable differences in their anti-proliferative activities with respect to the IC50 value. Samples of P. acinosa from Sichuan showed higher values in both cell lines (27.20 ± 1.60 and 25.59 ± 1.63 µg/mL) compared to those of Shandong and P. americana. For the first time, analysis and comparison of both interspecies and of different species in this family were carried out. This study will significantly contribute to the quality insurance of herbal medicine, especially in the Phytolaccaceae family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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