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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2062; doi:10.3390/molecules22122062

Terpenoids and Phenylpropanoids in Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, L. nelumbifolia, and L. limprichtii

1
Department of Chemistry, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan
2
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
3
Department of Life Science, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan
4
Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650201, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Abstract

The diversity in root chemicals and evolutionally neutral DNA regions in the complex of Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, and L. nelumbifolia (the d/k/n complex) was studied using eight samples collected in central and northern Sichuan Province of China. Cacalol (14) and epicacalone (15), rearranged eremophilanes, were isolated from the complex for the first time. Two new phenylpropanoids were also obtained. Seven of the eight samples produced phenylpropanoids and the other produced lupeol alone. Two of the seven samples also produced furanoeremophilanes or their derivatives and one produced oplopanes. The geographical distribution of the sesquiterpene-producing populations suggests that the production of sesquiterpenes evolved independently in separate regions. L. limprichtii collected in northern Sichuan was also analyzed and its chemical composition and the sequence of internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) in the ribosomal RNA gene cluster were found to be similar to that in the d/k/n complex and L. yunnanensis, which are morphologically similar. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ligularia duciformis; Ligularia kongkalingensis; Ligularia nelumbifolia; Ligularia limprichtii; eremophilane; oplopane; ITS sequence; diversity Ligularia duciformis; Ligularia kongkalingensis; Ligularia nelumbifolia; Ligularia limprichtii; eremophilane; oplopane; ITS sequence; diversity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuroda, C.; Kobayashi, R.; Nagata, A.; Nakadozono, Y.; Itoh, T.; Okamoto, Y.; Tori, M.; Hanai, R.; Gong, X. Terpenoids and Phenylpropanoids in Ligularia duciformis, L. kongkalingensis, L. nelumbifolia, and L. limprichtii. Molecules 2017, 22, 2062.

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