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Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1139; doi:10.3390/molecules22071139

Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea
2
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
3
Faculty of Agriculture, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
4
Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja, Okayama 719-1197, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Abstract

In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and β-santalol as the active components. The toxicity (median tolerance limit (TLm) after 24 h at 1.9 ppm) of α-santalol was comparable with that of a positive control, inulavosin (TLm after 24 h at 1.3 ppm). These fish toxic compounds including inulavosin were also found to show a significant antifungal effect against a dermatophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum. Based on a similarity of the morphological change of the immobilized Trichophyton hyphae in scanning electron micrographs between treatments with α-santalol and griseofulvin (used as the positive control), inhibitory effect of α-santalol on mitosis (the antifungal mechanism proposed for griseofulvin) was assessed using sea urchin embryos. As a result, α-santalol was revealed to be a potent antimitotic agent induced by interference with microtubule assembly. These data suggested that α-santalol or sandalwood oil would be promising to further practically investigate as therapeutic agent for cancers as well as fungal skin infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Santalum album L.; Santalaceae; α-santalol; ichthyotoxicity; antifungal effect; Trichophyton rubrum; inulavosin; antimitotic activity Santalum album L.; Santalaceae; α-santalol; ichthyotoxicity; antifungal effect; Trichophyton rubrum; inulavosin; antimitotic activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, T.H.; Hatano, T.; Okamoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Kanzaki, H.; Arita, M.; Ito, H. Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood. Molecules 2017, 22, 1139.

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