Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Structure of the Inclusion Complex {NdQ[5]K@Q[10](H2O)4}·4NO3·20H2O
Next Article in Special Issue
Three New Sesquiterpene Glycosides from the Rhizomes of Trillium tschonoskii
Previous Article in Journal
Peptide Nucleic Acids as miRNA Target Protectors for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Analysis of Saponins from Different Phytolaccaceae Species and Their Antiproliferative Activities
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1139; doi:10.3390/molecules22071139

Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Faculty of Agriculture, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja, Okayama 719-1197, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1303 KB, uploaded 8 July 2017]   |  


In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and β-santalol as the active components. The toxicity (median tolerance limit (TLm) after 24 h at 1.9 ppm) of α-santalol was comparable with that of a positive control, inulavosin (TLm after 24 h at 1.3 ppm). These fish toxic compounds including inulavosin were also found to show a significant antifungal effect against a dermatophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum. Based on a similarity of the morphological change of the immobilized Trichophyton hyphae in scanning electron micrographs between treatments with α-santalol and griseofulvin (used as the positive control), inhibitory effect of α-santalol on mitosis (the antifungal mechanism proposed for griseofulvin) was assessed using sea urchin embryos. As a result, α-santalol was revealed to be a potent antimitotic agent induced by interference with microtubule assembly. These data suggested that α-santalol or sandalwood oil would be promising to further practically investigate as therapeutic agent for cancers as well as fungal skin infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Santalum album L.; Santalaceae; α-santalol; ichthyotoxicity; antifungal effect; Trichophyton rubrum; inulavosin; antimitotic activity Santalum album L.; Santalaceae; α-santalol; ichthyotoxicity; antifungal effect; Trichophyton rubrum; inulavosin; antimitotic activity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, T.H.; Hatano, T.; Okamoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Kanzaki, H.; Arita, M.; Ito, H. Antifungal and Ichthyotoxic Sesquiterpenoids from Santalum album Heartwood. Molecules 2017, 22, 1139.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top