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Special Issue "Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2005)

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 585-586; doi:10.3390/10060585
Received: 3 January 2005 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (15 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Pd-catalyzed Synthesis of β-Biarylacryl Ferrocenes via Suzuki Cross-coupling
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 634-639; doi:10.3390/10060634
Received: 2 April 2004 / Accepted: 30 August 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (75 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Some novel β-biarylacryl ferrocene derivatives were synthesized viaPd-catalytic Suzuki cross-coupling reactions of β-(2-bromophenyl)acrylferroceneand arylboronic acids. The structures were determined with elemental analyses, IRspectra, and 1H-NMR spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New Triosmium Alkylidyne Carbonyl Cluster Containing a Chiral Ferrocenylphosphine Ligand
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 640-648; doi:10.3390/10060640
Received: 13 July 2004 / Accepted: 3 September 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and X-ray crystal structure of a newchiral triosmium alkylidyne carbonyl cluster, (R,S)-[Os3(μ-H)2(CO)93-CPPh25-C5H4)Fe(η5-C5H3(PPh2)CH(Me)NMe2)}] [...] Read more.
The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and X-ray crystal structure of a newchiral triosmium alkylidyne carbonyl cluster, (R,S)-[Os3(μ-H)2(CO)93-CPPh25-C5H4)Fe(η5-C5H3(PPh2)CH(Me)NMe2)}] (1) are described. Compound 1 crystallizes in thenon-centrosymmetric space group P21 and its absolute configuration has been established.The structure consists of an Os3C metal core with one of the PPh2 moieties of the chiralferrocenylphosphine bonded to the apical alkylidyne carbon atom to give a zwitterioniccluster complex, reminiscent of the phosphorus yli Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Asymmetric Mono-cyclopalladation of 1,1’-Di(α-dimethylamino)ethylferrocene
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 649-652; doi:10.3390/10060649
Received: 11 November 2004 / Accepted: 20 December 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
PDF Full-text (35 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Two-step synthesis of 1,1’-di(α-dimethylamino)ethylferrocene is described in details. Cyclopalladation of this diamine involving one or two amino groups is reported and the product of asymmetric mono-cyclopalladation is fully characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Reactions of Cp2MCl2 (M=Ti or Zr) with Imine-Oxime Ligands. Formation of Metallacycles
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 653-658; doi:10.3390/10060653
Received: 18 November 2004 / Accepted: 24 December 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (95 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reactions of bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV)/zirconium(IV) dichloridewith a series of imine-oxime ligands (LH2), derived by condensing benzil-α-monoxime and2-phenylenediamine, 4-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-2-phenylenediamine, 2,6-diamino-pyridine, have been studied in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran in the presence of base andmetallocycles of the [Cp2M(L)] (M=Ti or Zr) type [...] Read more.
The reactions of bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV)/zirconium(IV) dichloridewith a series of imine-oxime ligands (LH2), derived by condensing benzil-α-monoxime and2-phenylenediamine, 4-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-2-phenylenediamine, 2,6-diamino-pyridine, have been studied in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran in the presence of base andmetallocycles of the [Cp2M(L)] (M=Ti or Zr) type have been isolated. Tentative structureshave been proposed for the products based on elemental analysis, electrical conductance andspectral (electronic, IR and 1H-NMR) data. Proton NMR spectra indicate that on the NMRtime scale there is rapid rotation of the cyclopentadienyl ring around the metal-ring axis at25oC. Studies were conducted to assess the growth inhibiting potential of the complexessynthesized and the ligands against various bacterial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Catalytic Activity During Copolymerization of Ethylene and 1-Hexene via Mixed TiO2/SiO2-Supported MAO with rac-Et[Ind]2ZrCl2 Metallocene Catalyst
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 672-678; doi:10.3390/10060672
Received: 7 October 2004 / Accepted: 16 November 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (62 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activities during ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization were found to increaseusing the mixed titania/silica-supported MAO with rac-Et[Ind]2ZrCl2 metallocenecatalyst. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectorcopy (EDX) indicated that the titania wasapparently located on the outer surface of silica and acted as a spacer to anchor [...] Read more.
Activities during ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization were found to increaseusing the mixed titania/silica-supported MAO with rac-Et[Ind]2ZrCl2 metallocenecatalyst. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectorcopy (EDX) indicated that the titania wasapparently located on the outer surface of silica and acted as a spacer to anchor MAO tothe silica surface. IR spectra revealed the Si-O-Ti stretching at 980 cm-1 with low contentof titania. The presence of anchored titania resulted in less steric hindrance and lessinteraction due to supporting effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Immobilization of Chiral Ferrocenyl Ligands on Silica Gel and their Testing in Pd-catalyzed Allylic Substitution and Rh-catalyzed Hydrogenation
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 679-692; doi:10.3390/10060679
Received: 15 November 2004 / Accepted: 6 December 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Five different silica gels containing two chiral ferrocenyl ligands were prepared by various synthetic routes and tested in an enantioselective Pd(0)-catalyzed allylic substitution and Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation. All the prepared anchored ligands were characterized by porosimetry data, DRIFTS spectra, thermal data and AAS. [...] Read more.
Five different silica gels containing two chiral ferrocenyl ligands were prepared by various synthetic routes and tested in an enantioselective Pd(0)-catalyzed allylic substitution and Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation. All the prepared anchored ligands were characterized by porosimetry data, DRIFTS spectra, thermal data and AAS. The aim of the work was to compare the influence of the carrier, surface properties and immobilization strategy on the performance of the catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Supramolecular Complex Formation by β-Cyclodextrin and Ferrocenylnaphthalene Diimide-intercalated Double Stranded DNA and Improved Electrochemical Gene Detection
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 693-707; doi:10.3390/10060693
Received: 16 November 2004 / Accepted: 29 December 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ferrocenylnaphthalene diimide 1 can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) by the threading intercalation mode and the resulting complex was stabilized further by β- cyclodextrin (CD) by forming a supramolecular complex. These complex formation processes were studied by spectroscopic, viscometric, and electrochemical [...] Read more.
Ferrocenylnaphthalene diimide 1 can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) by the threading intercalation mode and the resulting complex was stabilized further by β- cyclodextrin (CD) by forming a supramolecular complex. These complex formation processes were studied by spectroscopic, viscometric, and electrochemical means in the absence or presence of β-CD. Quantitative analysis by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical experiments strongly suggested a 2:1 binding stoichiometry for β-CD to 1 threading-intercalated to the dsDNA-immobilized electrode. Owing to this supramolecular complex formation, electrochemical DNA detection based on 1 was improved considerably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Photooxidation of Some Metallocenes in a Polymer Matrix
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 708-727; doi:10.3390/10060708
Received: 3 December 2004 / Accepted: 5 January 2005 / Published: 14 July 2005
PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The changes in the electronic absorption spectra (UV-Vis) of some metallocene-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films containing chloroform molecules as impurities were studied after photoexcitation in the nitrogen atmosphere. Photoexcitations were made by monochromatic radiation (using a Xe-lamp source and a monochromator) [...] Read more.
The changes in the electronic absorption spectra (UV-Vis) of some metallocene-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films containing chloroform molecules as impurities were studied after photoexcitation in the nitrogen atmosphere. Photoexcitations were made by monochromatic radiation (using a Xe-lamp source and a monochromator) at an interval of few nanometers in the spectral range 210-750 nm. The changes in spectra were studied as a function of photoexcitation time (duration), amount of metallocene in the film and the amount of chloroform molecules present in the film. Occurrence of photoinduced charge-transfer between some metallocenes and chloroform molecules confined in the PMMA thin films was observed, which indicated photooxidation of the metallocenes in the polymer matrix. Photoresponse in the case of ferrocene derivatives was observed to decrease with the increase in the value of para- Hammett constant for the substituent attached to the ferrocene unit and also with increasing half-wave potential for the ferrocene derivatives. Photoeffects on the metallocenes having different central metal atom were studied and it was noticed that the photoeffects on the metallocenes with "18 valence electrons", as in ferrocene and ruthenocene, favored the occurrence of photoinduced charge-transfer between the metallocene and chloroform molecules present in a PMMA film. The photooxidation of a metallocene in a PMMA thin film resulted in an enhanced photoconductivity of the polymeric film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Role of Palladium in the Redox Electrochemistry of Ferrocene Monocarboxylic Acid Encapsulated Within ORMOSIL Networks
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 728-739; doi:10.3390/10060728
Received: 29 November 2004 / Accepted: 14 January 2005 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report herein the effect of palladium on the redox electrochemistry of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid encapsulated within an organically modified sol-gel glass network (ORMOSIL). It has been found that amount of palladium and its geometrical distribution significantly alter the redox electrochemistry of FcMCA. The geometrical distribution of palladium has been controlled by two methods: (i) palladium is allowed to link within nanostructured network of the ORMOSIL which was subsequently availed from the reactivity of palladium chloride and trimethoxysilane; (ii) palladium powder is encapsulated together FcMCA thus allowing the presence of palladium within the nanoporous domain. The content of palladium is varied by controlling the reaction dynamics of palladium chloride and trimethoxysilane interaction. For this we initially allowed to trigger hydrolysis, condensation and poly-condensation of trimethoxysilane and dimethyldiethoxysilane in acidic medium and subsequently partially dried ORMOSIL film was allowed to interact with palladium chloride. Even with partially dried ORMOSIL derived from trimethoxysilane and dimethyldiethoxysilane undergoes rapid interaction with palladium chloride and the transparent color of ORMOSIL changed to a black colour due to the formation of palladium silicon linkage. The palladium-silicon linkage has been identified by NMR, UV-VIS and transmission electron spectroscopy. The electrochemistry of FcMCA encapsulated within such an ORMOSIL matrix has been studied. Excellent redox electrochemistry of ferrocene monocarboxylic acid having peak potential separation tending to 0 for a multilayered electrode was investigated. The palladium content has been found to affect the redox electrochemistry of ferrocene as well as electrocatalytic efficiency of new ORMOSIL material. The electroanalysis of NADH is reported. The modified electrode is very sensitive to NADH with lowest detection limit of < 1 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessArticle Homo-polymerization of α-Olefins and Co-polymerization of Higher α-Olefins with Ethylene in the Presence of CpTiCl2(OC6H4X-p)/MAO Catalysts (X = CH3, Cl)
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 659-671; doi:10.3390/10060659
Received: 5 August 2004 / Accepted: 23 September 2004 / Published: 4 July 2005
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyclopentadienyl-titanium complexes containing –OC6H4X ligands (X = Cl,CH3) activated with methylaluminoxane (MAO) were used in the homo-polymerizationof ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, and also in co-polymerization of ethylene with the α-olefins mentioned. The -X [...] Read more.
Cyclopentadienyl-titanium complexes containing –OC6H4X ligands (X = Cl,CH3) activated with methylaluminoxane (MAO) were used in the homo-polymerizationof ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, and also in co-polymerization of ethylene with the α-olefins mentioned. The -X substituents exhibitdifferent electron donor-acceptor properties, which is described by Hammett’s factor (σ).The chlorine atom is electron acceptor, while the methyl group is electron donor. Thesecatalysts allow the preparation of polyethylene in a good yield. Propylene in the presenceof the catalysts mentioned dimerizes and oligomerizes to trimers and tetramers at 25oCunder normal pressure. If the propylene pressure was increased to 7 atmospheres,CpTiCl2(OC6H4CH3)/MAO catalyst at 25oC gave mixtures with different contents ofpropylene dimers, trimers and tetramers. At 70oC we obtained only propylene trimer.Using the catalysts with a -OC6H4Cl ligand we obtained atactic polymers with Mw182,000 g/mol (at 25oC) and 100,000 g/mol (at 70oC). The superior activity of theCpTiCl2(OC6H4Cl)/MAO catalyst used in polymerization of propylene prompted us tocheck its activity in polymerization of higher α-olefins (1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene)and in co-polymerization of these olefins with ethylene. However, when homo-polymerization was carried out in the presence of this catalyst no polymers wereobtained. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the presence of dimers. The activity ofthe CpTiCl2(OC6H4Cl)/MAO catalyst in the co-polymerization of ethylene with higher α-olefins is limited by the length of the co-monomer carbon chain. Hence, the highest catalyst activities were observed in co-polymerization of ethylene with propylene (here a lower pressure of the reagents and shorter reaction time were applied to obtain catalytic activity similar to that for other co-monomers). For other co-monomers the activity of the catalyst decreases as follows: propylene >1-butene > 1-pentene >> 1-hexene. In the case of co-polymerization of ethylene with propylene, besides an increase in catalytic activity, an increase in the average molecular weight Mw of the polymer was observed. Other co- monomers used in this study caused a decrease of molecular weight. A significant increase in molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn) evidences a great variety of polymer chains formed during the reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)

Review

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Open AccessReview Enantioselective Hydrogenations with Chiral Titanocenes
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 587-619; doi:10.3390/10060587
Received: 20 July 2004 / Accepted: 8 October 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review article chiral titanocenes and their application for the enantioselective hydrogenations of different unsaturated compounds are discussed, with a special emphasis on the kinetics and the practicality of the developed systems. The nature of enantioselectivity and the hydrogenation mechanisms are [...] Read more.
In this review article chiral titanocenes and their application for the enantioselective hydrogenations of different unsaturated compounds are discussed, with a special emphasis on the kinetics and the practicality of the developed systems. The nature of enantioselectivity and the hydrogenation mechanisms are reviewed as well. Catalyst immobilization and the different immobilization techniques are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
Open AccessReview Developments of Chiral Metallocenes as Polymerization Catalysts
Molecules 2005, 10(6), 620-633; doi:10.3390/10060620
Received: 2 April 2004 / Accepted: 30 August 2004 / Published: 14 July 2005
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review article describes developments in chiral metallocenes as polymerization catalysts focusing on C2 symmetric ansa-zirconocene complexes. Selective synthesis of rac-isomers of ansa-zirconocenes are surveyed. Isospecific polymerizations of propylene catalyzed by chiral zirconocenes are summarized. Advanced series of polymerizations by chiral metallocenes [...] Read more.
This review article describes developments in chiral metallocenes as polymerization catalysts focusing on C2 symmetric ansa-zirconocene complexes. Selective synthesis of rac-isomers of ansa-zirconocenes are surveyed. Isospecific polymerizations of propylene catalyzed by chiral zirconocenes are summarized. Advanced series of polymerizations by chiral metallocenes such as asymmetric polymerization and polymerization of polar monomers are also introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)

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