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Molecules 2005, 10(6), 659-671; doi:10.3390/10060659
Article

Homo-polymerization of α-Olefins and Co-polymerization of Higher α-Olefins with Ethylene in the Presence of CpTiCl2(OC6H4X-p)/MAO Catalysts (X = CH3, Cl)

* ,
,
 and
Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Department of Engineering Plastics and Special Polymers, Group of Catalytic Polymerization, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2004 / Accepted: 23 September 2004 / Published: 4 July 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Chemistry of Chiral Metallocenes)
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Abstract

Cyclopentadienyl-titanium complexes containing –OC6H4X ligands (X = Cl,CH3) activated with methylaluminoxane (MAO) were used in the homo-polymerizationof ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, and also in co-polymerization of ethylene with the α-olefins mentioned. The -X substituents exhibitdifferent electron donor-acceptor properties, which is described by Hammett’s factor (σ).The chlorine atom is electron acceptor, while the methyl group is electron donor. Thesecatalysts allow the preparation of polyethylene in a good yield. Propylene in the presenceof the catalysts mentioned dimerizes and oligomerizes to trimers and tetramers at 25oCunder normal pressure. If the propylene pressure was increased to 7 atmospheres,CpTiCl2(OC6H4CH3)/MAO catalyst at 25oC gave mixtures with different contents ofpropylene dimers, trimers and tetramers. At 70oC we obtained only propylene trimer.Using the catalysts with a -OC6H4Cl ligand we obtained atactic polymers with Mw182,000 g/mol (at 25oC) and 100,000 g/mol (at 70oC). The superior activity of theCpTiCl2(OC6H4Cl)/MAO catalyst used in polymerization of propylene prompted us tocheck its activity in polymerization of higher α-olefins (1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene)and in co-polymerization of these olefins with ethylene. However, when homo-polymerization was carried out in the presence of this catalyst no polymers wereobtained. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the presence of dimers. The activity ofthe CpTiCl2(OC6H4Cl)/MAO catalyst in the co-polymerization of ethylene with higher α-olefins is limited by the length of the co-monomer carbon chain. Hence, the highest catalyst activities were observed in co-polymerization of ethylene with propylene (here a lower pressure of the reagents and shorter reaction time were applied to obtain catalytic activity similar to that for other co-monomers). For other co-monomers the activity of the catalyst decreases as follows: propylene >1-butene > 1-pentene >> 1-hexene. In the case of co-polymerization of ethylene with propylene, besides an increase in catalytic activity, an increase in the average molecular weight Mw of the polymer was observed. Other co- monomers used in this study caused a decrease of molecular weight. A significant increase in molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn) evidences a great variety of polymer chains formed during the reaction.
Keywords: Hemititanocene; ethylene; propylene; 1-butene; 1-pentene; 1-hexene; co- polymerization of ethylene Hemititanocene; ethylene; propylene; 1-butene; 1-pentene; 1-hexene; co- polymerization of ethylene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Skupinski, W.; Nicinski, K.; Jamanek, D.; Wieczorek, Z. Homo-polymerization of α-Olefins and Co-polymerization of Higher α-Olefins with Ethylene in the Presence of CpTiCl2(OC6H4X-p)/MAO Catalysts (X = CH3, Cl). Molecules 2005, 10, 659-671.

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