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Special Issue "Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 February 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jon Dobson

J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, and Institute for Cell Engineering and Regenerative Medicine—ICERM, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116131, Gainesville, Florida, FL 32611, USA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic particles have been used in biological and medical applications since the early 1920s. More recently, there has been an explosion of innovative applications in this area, many with a focus on clinical translation. This Special Issue will focus on papers that explore both fundamental studies of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for biomedicine, as well as research and clinical applications.

Prof. Dr. Jon Dobson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Magnetic microparticles
  • Magnetic hyperthermia
  • Tissue engineering
  • Stem cells
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Magnetic particle imaging
  • nanotechnology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Reconstruction Method for the Estimation of Temperatures of Multiple Sources Applied for Nanoparticle-Mediated Hyperthermia
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030670
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid malignant tumors are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many times complete removal is not possible and alternative methods such as focused hyperthermia are used. Precise control of the hyperthermia process is imperative for the successful application of such treatment.
[...] Read more.
Solid malignant tumors are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many times complete removal is not possible and alternative methods such as focused hyperthermia are used. Precise control of the hyperthermia process is imperative for the successful application of such treatment. To that end, this research presents a fast method that enables the estimation of deep tissue heat distribution by capturing and processing the transient temperature at the boundary based on a bio-heat transfer model. The theoretical model is rigorously developed and thoroughly validated by a series of experiments. A 10-fold improvement is demonstrated in resolution and visibility on tissue mimicking phantoms. The inverse problem is demonstrated as well with a successful application of the model for imaging deep-tissue embedded heat sources. Thereby, allowing the physician then ability to dynamically evaluate the hyperthermia treatment efficiency in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle In Vivo Dual-Modality Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Lymph Node Mapping with Good Biocompatibility Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122208
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multifunctional manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with impressive enhanced T1 contrast ability show great promise in biomedical diagnosis. Herein, we developed a dual-modality imaging agent system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated manganese oxide NPs conjugated with organic dye (Cy7.5), which functions
[...] Read more.
Multifunctional manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with impressive enhanced T1 contrast ability show great promise in biomedical diagnosis. Herein, we developed a dual-modality imaging agent system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated manganese oxide NPs conjugated with organic dye (Cy7.5), which functions as a fluorescence imaging (FI) agent as well as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging agent. The formed Mn3O4@PEG-Cy7.5 NPs with the size of ~10 nm exhibit good colloidal stability in different physiological media. Serial FI and MRI studies that non-invasively assessed the bio-distribution pattern and the feasibility for in vivo dual-modality imaging-guided lymph node mapping have been investigated. In addition, histological and biochemical analyses exhibited low toxicity even at a dose of 20 mg/kg in vivo. Since Mn3O4@PEG-Cy7.5 NPs exhibited desirable properties as imaging agents and good biocompatibility, this work offers a robust, safe, and accurate diagnostic platform based on manganese oxide NPs for tumor metastasis diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Methods to Estimate the Efficiency of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Imaging
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122204
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) are powerful methods in the early diagnosis of diseases. Both imaging techniques utilize magnetic nanoparticles that have high magnetic susceptibility, strong saturation magnetization, and no coercivity. FeraSpinTM R and its fractionated products have
[...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) are powerful methods in the early diagnosis of diseases. Both imaging techniques utilize magnetic nanoparticles that have high magnetic susceptibility, strong saturation magnetization, and no coercivity. FeraSpinTM R and its fractionated products have been studied for their imaging performances; however, a detailed magnetic characterization in their immobilized state is still lacking. This is particularly important for applications in MPI that require fixation of magnetic nanoparticles with the target cells or tissues. We examine the magnetic properties of immobilized FeraSpinTM R, its size fractions, and Resovist®, and use the findings to demonstrate which magnetic properties best predict performance. All samples show some degree of oxidation to hematite, and magnetic interaction between the particles, which impact negatively on image performance of the materials. MRI and MPI performance show a linear dependency on the slope of the magnetization curve, i.e., initial susceptibility, and average blocking temperature. The best performance of particles in immobilized state for MPI is found for particle sizes close to the boundary between superparamagnetic (SP) and magnetically ordered, in which only Néel relaxation is important. Initial susceptibility and bifurcation temperature are the best indicators to predict MRI and MPI performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Marking and Intraoperative Detection of Primary Draining Lymph Nodes in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Additional Diagnostic Value
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2192; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122192
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) using a magnetometer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a tracer was successfully applied in prostate cancer (PCa). Radioisotope-guided sLND combined with extended pelvic LND (ePLND) achieved better node removal, increasing the number of affected nodes or
[...] Read more.
Sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) using a magnetometer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a tracer was successfully applied in prostate cancer (PCa). Radioisotope-guided sLND combined with extended pelvic LND (ePLND) achieved better node removal, increasing the number of affected nodes or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes outside the established ePLND template. We determined the diagnostic value of additional magnetometer-guided sLND after intraprostatic SPION-injection in high-risk PCa. This retrospective study included 104 high-risk PCa patients (PSA >20 ng/mL and/or Gleason score ≥ 8 and/or cT2c) from a prospective cohort who underwent radical prostatectomy with magnetometer-guided sLND and ePLND. The diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using ePLND as a reference standard. Lymph node metastases were found in 61 of 104 patients (58.7%). sLND had a 100% diagnostic rate, 96.6% sensitivity, 95.6% specificity, 96.6% positive predictive value, 95.6% negative predictive value, 3.4% false negative rate, and 4.4% false positive rate (detecting lymph node metastases outside the ePLND template). These findings demonstrate the high sensitivity and additional diagnostic value of magnetometer-guided sLND, exceeding that of ePLND through the individualized extension of PLND or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes/lymph node metastases outside the established node template in high-risk PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Magnetic Nanoparticles in the Central Nervous System: Targeting Principles, Applications and Safety Issues
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most challenging goals in pharmacological research is overcoming the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) to deliver drugs to the Central Nervous System (CNS). The use of physical means, such as steady and alternating magnetic fields to drive nanocarriers with proper magnetic
[...] Read more.
One of the most challenging goals in pharmacological research is overcoming the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) to deliver drugs to the Central Nervous System (CNS). The use of physical means, such as steady and alternating magnetic fields to drive nanocarriers with proper magnetic characteristics may prove to be a useful strategy. The present review aims at providing an up-to-date picture of the applications of magnetic-driven nanotheranostics agents to the CNS. Although well consolidated on physical ground, some of the techniques described herein are still under investigation on in vitro or in silico models, while others have already entered in—or are close to—clinical validation. The review provides a concise overview of the physical principles underlying the behavior of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) interacting with an external magnetic field. Thereafter we describe the physiological pathways by which a substance can reach the brain from the bloodstream and then we focus on those MNP applications that aim at a nondestructive crossing of the BBB such as static magnetic fields to facilitate the passage of drugs and alternating magnetic fields to increment BBB permeability by magnetic heating. In conclusion, we briefly cite the most notable biomedical applications of MNPs and some relevant remarks about their safety and potential toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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