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Special Issue "Micro/Nano Manufacturing"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Niels Koppels Allé, Building 404, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Produktionstorvet Building 425, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-scale polymer manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing; surface replication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of more and more research and industrial focus over the past 10 years. Traditional lithography-based technology forms the basis of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology platforms are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via injection molding. Manufacturing processes at the micro-scale are the key-enabling technologies to bridge the gap between the nano- and the macro-worlds to increase the accuracy of micro/nano-precision production technologies, and to integrate different dimensional scales in mass-manufacturing processes. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in micro- and nano-scale manufacturing, i.e., on novel process chains including process optimization, quality assurance approaches and metrology.

We look forward to receiving your submissions!

Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    Micro- and nano-manufacturing
•    Process chains
•    Micro- and nano-metrology
•    Micro- and nano-scale replication

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Modeling of the Effect of Process Variations on a Micromachined Doubly-Clamped Beam
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 81; doi:10.3390/mi8030081
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be
[...] Read more.
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be determined by design parameter ranges and distribution functions. Topographical changes constitute process variations, such as inclination, over-etching, and undulating sidewalls in the Bosch process. In this paper, analytical models are first developed for MEMS doubly-clamped beams, concerning the mentioned geometrical variations. Then, finite-element (FE) analysis is performed to provide a guidance for model verifications. It is found that results predicted by the models agree with those of FE analysis. Assigning process variations, predictions for performance as well as yield can be made directly from the analytical models, by means of probabilistic analysis. In this paper, the footing effect is found to have a more profound effect on the resonant frequency of doubly-clamped beams during the Bosch process. As the confining process has a variation of 10.0%, the yield will have a reduction of 77.3% consequently. Under these circumstances, the prediction approaches can be utilized to guide the further MEMS device designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effects of Profile Errors of Microlens Surfaces on Laser Beam Homogenization
Micromachines 2017, 8(2), 50; doi:10.3390/mi8020050
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface
[...] Read more.
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface profile mismatches between ideal and fabricated MLAs on beam homogenization were analyzed. Four types of surface profile errors of MLAs were modeled theoretically and numerical simulations were conducted to quantitatively estimate the effects of these profile errors on beam homogenization. In addition, experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results, revealing that profile errors leading to optical deviations located on the apex of microlenses affected beam homogenization less than deviations located further away from it. This study can provide references for the further applications of MLAs in beam homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Comparative analysis of surface extraction techniques in computed tomography for 3D complex micro-geometry dimensional measurements

Authors: Marta Torralba, Roberto Jiménez, José A. Yagüe-Fabra, Sinué Ontiveros and Guido Tosello
Abstract: Industrial applications of Computed Tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology are increasing in the last years due to the features of this non-contact imaging technique that enables measuring non-accessible internal structures and multi-material components. Considering 3D complex surface micro-geometries, computed tomography becomes also a viable solution for dimensional measurements, despite of the high number of factors that influence the CT process. In order to analyze the contribution of post-processing to the final measurement uncertainty, two surface extraction techniques are applied in this work to measure a complex miniaturized dental file by CT. One method is based on the threshold determination strategy and the second one on the 3D Canny algorithm. To verify the CT dimensional measurement results and compare both techniques, reference measurements are performed on an optical coordinate measuring machine (OCMM). Systematic errors and uncertainty results show that 3D Canny adapted method provides lower deviations and a more robust and accurate edge definition capability by an easier correction than the local threshold.
Keywords: 3D complex geometry; computed tomography; surface extraction, Canny algorithm

Title: 3D finite element simulation of micro end-milling by considering the effect of tool run-out
Authors: A. Davoudinejad, G. Tosello and M. Annoni
Abstract: Understanding the micro milling phenomena involved in the process is critical and difficult through physical experiments. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for the micro end-milling process on Al6082-T6. The proposed model employs a Lagrangian explicit finite element formulation to perform coupled thermo-mechanical transient analyses. FE simulations were performed at different cutting conditions to obtain realistic numerical predictions of chip formation, temperature distribution, and cutting forces by considering the effect of tool run-out into the model. The radial run-out is a significant issue in micro milling processes and influence the cutting stability due to chip load and forces variations. The Johnson–Cook (JC) material constitutive model was applied and its constants were determined by an inverse method based on the experimental cutting forces acquired during the micro end-milling tests. The FE model prediction capability was validated by comparing the numerical model results with experimental tests. The maximum tool temperature was predicted in different angular position of the cutter which is difficult or impossible to obtain in experiments. The predicted results of the model, involving the run-out influence, showed a good correlation with experimental chip formation and cutting forces signal shape.
Keywords: micro milling, finite element, run-out, chip formation, cutting force, cutting temperature, 3D simulation, measurement

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