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Special Issue "Micro/Nano Manufacturing"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Niels Koppels Allé, Building 404, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Produktionstorvet Building 425, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-scale polymer manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing; surface replication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of more and more research and industrial focus over the past 10 years. Traditional lithography-based technology forms the basis of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology platforms are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via injection molding. Manufacturing processes at the micro-scale are the key-enabling technologies to bridge the gap between the nano- and the macro-worlds to increase the accuracy of micro/nano-precision production technologies, and to integrate different dimensional scales in mass-manufacturing processes. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in micro- and nano-scale manufacturing, i.e., on novel process chains including process optimization, quality assurance approaches and metrology.

We look forward to receiving your submissions!

Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    Micro- and nano-manufacturing
•    Process chains
•    Micro- and nano-metrology
•    Micro- and nano-scale replication

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Handling in the Production of Wire-Based Linked Micro Parts
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 169; doi:10.3390/mi8060169 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
For simplified processing and the enhancement of output rate in multi-stage production, micro parts are handled as linked parts. This contribution discusses handling specific challenges in production based on an exemplary process chain. The examined linked parts consist of spherical elements linked by
[...] Read more.
For simplified processing and the enhancement of output rate in multi-stage production, micro parts are handled as linked parts. This contribution discusses handling specific challenges in production based on an exemplary process chain. The examined linked parts consist of spherical elements linked by wire material. Hence, the diameter varies between the wire and part. Nevertheless, the linked parts must be handled accurately. The feed system is an important component too, but special focus is given to the guides in this present study. They must adapt to the diameters of both the parts and the linking wires. Two alternative variants of adaptive guides are presented and investigated under the aspects of precise radial guiding, vibration isolation, damping behavior and friction force. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Low Temperature Plasma Nitriding of Inner Surfaces in Stainless Steel Mini-/Micro-Pipes and Nozzles
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 157; doi:10.3390/mi8050157
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Metallic miniature products have been highlighted as mini-/micro-structural components working as a precise mechanism, in dispensing systems, and in medical operations. In particular, the essential mechanical parts such as pipes and nozzles have strength and hardness sufficient for ejecting viscous liquids, solders, and
[...] Read more.
Metallic miniature products have been highlighted as mini-/micro-structural components working as a precise mechanism, in dispensing systems, and in medical operations. In particular, the essential mechanical parts such as pipes and nozzles have strength and hardness sufficient for ejecting viscous liquids, solders, and particles. A low-temperature plasma nitriding process was proposed as a surface treatment to improve the engineering durability of stainless steel mini-/micro-pipes and nozzles. Various analyses were performed to describe the inner nitriding process only, from the inner surface of pipes and nozzles to their depth in thickness. AISI316 pipes and AISI316/AISI304 nozzle specimens were used to demonstrate by plasma nitriding for 14.4 ks at 693 K that their inner surfaces had a hardness higher than 800 HV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Novel Platform to Predict the Mechanical Damage of a Miniature Mobile Haptic Actuator
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 156; doi:10.3390/mi8050156
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
PDF Full-text (14338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Impact characterization of a linear resonant actuator (LRA) is studied experimentally by a newly-developed drop tester, which can control various experimental uncertainties, such as rotational moment, air resistance, secondary impact, and so on. The feasibility of this test apparatus was verified by a
[...] Read more.
Impact characterization of a linear resonant actuator (LRA) is studied experimentally by a newly-developed drop tester, which can control various experimental uncertainties, such as rotational moment, air resistance, secondary impact, and so on. The feasibility of this test apparatus was verified by a comparison with a free fall test. By utilizing a high-speed camera and measuring the vibrational displacement of the spring material, the impact behavior was captured and the damping ratio of the system was defined. Based on the above processes, a finite element model was established and the experimental and analytical results were successfully correlated. Finally, the damage of the system from impact loading can be expected by the developed model and, as a result, this research can improve the impact reliability of the LRA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Fabrication of Disposable Micromixing Arrays Using Xurography and Laser Ablation
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 144; doi:10.3390/mi8050144
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We assessed xurography and laser ablation for the manufacture of passive micromixers arrays to explore the scalability of unconventional manufacture technologies that could be implemented under the restrictions of the Point of Care for developing countries. In this work, we present a novel
[...] Read more.
We assessed xurography and laser ablation for the manufacture of passive micromixers arrays to explore the scalability of unconventional manufacture technologies that could be implemented under the restrictions of the Point of Care for developing countries. In this work, we present a novel split-and-recombine (SAR) array design adapted for interfacing standardized dispensing (handheld micropipette) and sampling (microplate reader) equipment. The design was patterned and sealed from A4 sized vinyl sheets (polyvinyl chloride), employing low-cost disposable materials. Manufacture was evaluated measuring the dimensional error with stereoscopic and confocal microscopy. The micromixing efficiency was estimated using a machine vision system for passive driven infusion provided by micropippetting samples of dye and water. It was possible to employ rapid fabrication based on xurography to develop a four channel asymmetric split-and-recombine (ASAR) micromixer with mixing efficiencies ranging from 43% to 65%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Mesoscale Channel by Scanning Micro Electrochemical Flow Cell (SMEFC)
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 143; doi:10.3390/mi8050143
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
PDF Full-text (20731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A unique micro electrochemical machining (ECM) method based on a scanning micro electrochemical flow cell (SMEFC), in which the electrolyte is confined beneath the tool electrode instead of spreading on the workpiece surface, has been developed and its feasibility for fabricating mesoscale channels
[...] Read more.
A unique micro electrochemical machining (ECM) method based on a scanning micro electrochemical flow cell (SMEFC), in which the electrolyte is confined beneath the tool electrode instead of spreading on the workpiece surface, has been developed and its feasibility for fabricating mesoscale channels has been investigated. The effects of the surface conditions, the applied current, the feed rate, the concentration of the electrolyte and several geometrical parameters on the machining performance have been investigated through a series of experiments. The cross-sectional profile of the channels, the roughness of the channel bottom, the width and depth of the channel, the microstructures on the machined surface and the morphologies of the moving droplet have been analyzed and compared under different machining conditions. Furthermore, experiments with different overlaps of the electrolyte droplet traces have also been conducted, in which the SMEFC acts as a “milling tool”. The influences of the electrode offset distance (EOD), the current and the feed rate on the machining performance have also been examined through the comparison of the corresponding cross-sectional profiles and microstructures. The results indicate that, in addition to machining individual channels, the SMEFC system is also capable of generating shallow cavities with a suitable superimposed motion of the tool electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic-Assisted Incremental Microforming of Thin Shell Pyramids of Metallic Foil
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 142; doi:10.3390/mi8050142
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
PDF Full-text (9374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single point incremental forming is used for rapid prototyping of sheet metal parts. This forming technology was applied to the fabrication of thin shell micropyramids of aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium foils. A single point tool used had a tip radius of 0.1
[...] Read more.
Single point incremental forming is used for rapid prototyping of sheet metal parts. This forming technology was applied to the fabrication of thin shell micropyramids of aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium foils. A single point tool used had a tip radius of 0.1 mm or 0.01 mm. An ultrasonic spindle with axial vibration was implemented for improving the shape accuracy of micropyramids formed on 5–12 micrometers-thick aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium foils. The formability was also investigated by comparing the forming limits of micropyramids of aluminum foil formed with and without ultrasonic vibration. The shapes of pyramids incrementally formed were truncated pyramids, twisted pyramids, stepwise pyramids, and star pyramids about 1 mm in size. A much smaller truncated pyramid was formed only for titanium foil for qualitative investigation of the size reduction on forming accuracy. It was found that the ultrasonic vibration improved the shape accuracy of the formed pyramids. In addition, laser heating increased the forming limit of aluminum foil and it is more effective when both the ultrasonic vibration and laser heating are applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of the Effect of Process Variations on a Micromachined Doubly-Clamped Beam
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 81; doi:10.3390/mi8030081
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
PDF Full-text (5330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be
[...] Read more.
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be determined by design parameter ranges and distribution functions. Topographical changes constitute process variations, such as inclination, over-etching, and undulating sidewalls in the Bosch process. In this paper, analytical models are first developed for MEMS doubly-clamped beams, concerning the mentioned geometrical variations. Then, finite-element (FE) analysis is performed to provide a guidance for model verifications. It is found that results predicted by the models agree with those of FE analysis. Assigning process variations, predictions for performance as well as yield can be made directly from the analytical models, by means of probabilistic analysis. In this paper, the footing effect is found to have a more profound effect on the resonant frequency of doubly-clamped beams during the Bosch process. As the confining process has a variation of 10.0%, the yield will have a reduction of 77.3% consequently. Under these circumstances, the prediction approaches can be utilized to guide the further MEMS device designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effects of Profile Errors of Microlens Surfaces on Laser Beam Homogenization
Micromachines 2017, 8(2), 50; doi:10.3390/mi8020050
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
PDF Full-text (4722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface
[...] Read more.
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface profile mismatches between ideal and fabricated MLAs on beam homogenization were analyzed. Four types of surface profile errors of MLAs were modeled theoretically and numerical simulations were conducted to quantitatively estimate the effects of these profile errors on beam homogenization. In addition, experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results, revealing that profile errors leading to optical deviations located on the apex of microlenses affected beam homogenization less than deviations located further away from it. This study can provide references for the further applications of MLAs in beam homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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