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Special Issue "Micro/Nano Manufacturing"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Niels Koppels Allé, Building 404, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Produktionstorvet Building 425, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-scale polymer manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing; surface replication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of more and more research and industrial focus over the past 10 years. Traditional lithography-based technology forms the basis of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology platforms are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via injection molding. Manufacturing processes at the micro-scale are the key-enabling technologies to bridge the gap between the nano- and the macro-worlds to increase the accuracy of micro/nano-precision production technologies, and to integrate different dimensional scales in mass-manufacturing processes. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in micro- and nano-scale manufacturing, i.e., on novel process chains including process optimization, quality assurance approaches and metrology.

We look forward to receiving your submissions!

Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    Micro- and nano-manufacturing
•    Process chains
•    Micro- and nano-metrology
•    Micro- and nano-scale replication

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle On the Application of Replica Molding Technology for the Indirect Measurement of Surface and Geometry of Micromilled Components
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 195; doi:10.3390/mi8060195
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The evaluation of micromilled parts quality requires detailed assessments of both geometry and surface topography. However, in many cases, the reduced accessibility caused by the complex geometry of the part makes it impossible to perform direct measurements. This problem can be solved by
[...] Read more.
The evaluation of micromilled parts quality requires detailed assessments of both geometry and surface topography. However, in many cases, the reduced accessibility caused by the complex geometry of the part makes it impossible to perform direct measurements. This problem can be solved by adopting the replica molding technology. The method consists of obtaining a replica of the feature that is inaccessible for standard measurement devices and performing its indirect measurement. This paper examines the performance of a commercial replication media applied to the indirect measurement of micromilled components. Two specifically designed micromilled benchmark samples were used to assess the accuracy in replicating both surface texture and geometry. A 3D confocal microscope and a focus variation instrument were employed and the associated uncertainties were evaluated. The replication method proved to be suitable for characterizing micromilled surface texture even though an average overestimation in the nano-metric level of the Sa parameter was observed. On the other hand, the replicated geometry generally underestimated that of the master, often leading to a different measurement output considering the micrometric uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Finite Element Simulation of Micro End-Milling by Considering the Effect of Tool Run-Out
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 187; doi:10.3390/mi8060187
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Understanding the micro milling phenomena involved in the process is critical and difficult through physical experiments. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for the micro end-milling process on Al6082-T6. The proposed model employs a Lagrangian explicit finite element
[...] Read more.
Understanding the micro milling phenomena involved in the process is critical and difficult through physical experiments. This study presents a 3D finite element modeling (3D FEM) approach for the micro end-milling process on Al6082-T6. The proposed model employs a Lagrangian explicit finite element formulation to perform coupled thermo-mechanical transient analyses. FE simulations were performed at different cutting conditions to obtain realistic numerical predictions of chip formation, temperature distribution, and cutting forces by considering the effect of tool run-out in the model. The radial run-out is a significant issue in micro milling processes and influences the cutting stability due to chip load and force variations. The Johnson–Cook (JC) material constitutive model was applied and its constants were determined by an inverse method based on the experimental cutting forces acquired during the micro end-milling tests. The FE model prediction capability was validated by comparing the numerical model results with experimental tests. The maximum tool temperature was predicted in a different angular position of the cutter which is difficult or impossible to obtain in experiments. The predicted results of the model, involving the run-out influence, showed a good correlation with experimental chip formation and the signal shape of cutting forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Functional Plastic Parts Using Nanostructured Steel Mold Inserts
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 179; doi:10.3390/mi8060179
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts were textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication
[...] Read more.
We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts were textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication of structures with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers and aspect ratios of up to 1:2. Nanostructured plastic parts were produced by means of hot embossing and injection molding. Surface nanostructuring was used to control wettability and increase the sensitivity of an immunoassay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Slurry Injection Schemes on the Extent of Slurry Mixing and Availability during Chemical Mechanical Planarization
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 170; doi:10.3390/mi8060170
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water) were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow
[...] Read more.
In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water) were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow on the pad during polishing. This study investigated standard pad center area slurry application and a slurry injection system (SIS) that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and the alteration of fluid mechanics by the SIS played important roles in slurry mixing characteristics and availability atop the pad. Removal rates were found to decrease with slurry availability, while a higher degree of slurry mixing decreased the fraction of fresh slurry and consequently lowered the removal rate. By using a hybrid system (i.e., a combination of slurry injection via SIS and standard pad center slurry application), the polishing process benefited from higher slurry availability and higher fraction of fresh slurry than the conventional pad center slurry application and the shorter SIS, individually. This work underscores the importance of optimum slurry injection geometry and flow for obtaining a more cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical mechanical planarization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Handling in the Production of Wire-Based Linked Micro Parts
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 169; doi:10.3390/mi8060169
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
PDF Full-text (12694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
For simplified processing and the enhancement of output rate in multi-stage production, micro parts are handled as linked parts. This contribution discusses handling specific challenges in production based on an exemplary process chain. The examined linked parts consist of spherical elements linked by
[...] Read more.
For simplified processing and the enhancement of output rate in multi-stage production, micro parts are handled as linked parts. This contribution discusses handling specific challenges in production based on an exemplary process chain. The examined linked parts consist of spherical elements linked by wire material. Hence, the diameter varies between the wire and part. Nevertheless, the linked parts must be handled accurately. The feed system is an important component too, but special focus is given to the guides in this present study. They must adapt to the diameters of both the parts and the linking wires. Two alternative variants of adaptive guides are presented and investigated under the aspects of precise radial guiding, vibration isolation, damping behavior and friction force. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Low Temperature Plasma Nitriding of Inner Surfaces in Stainless Steel Mini-/Micro-Pipes and Nozzles
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 157; doi:10.3390/mi8050157
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
PDF Full-text (4213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metallic miniature products have been highlighted as mini-/micro-structural components working as a precise mechanism, in dispensing systems, and in medical operations. In particular, the essential mechanical parts such as pipes and nozzles have strength and hardness sufficient for ejecting viscous liquids, solders, and
[...] Read more.
Metallic miniature products have been highlighted as mini-/micro-structural components working as a precise mechanism, in dispensing systems, and in medical operations. In particular, the essential mechanical parts such as pipes and nozzles have strength and hardness sufficient for ejecting viscous liquids, solders, and particles. A low-temperature plasma nitriding process was proposed as a surface treatment to improve the engineering durability of stainless steel mini-/micro-pipes and nozzles. Various analyses were performed to describe the inner nitriding process only, from the inner surface of pipes and nozzles to their depth in thickness. AISI316 pipes and AISI316/AISI304 nozzle specimens were used to demonstrate by plasma nitriding for 14.4 ks at 693 K that their inner surfaces had a hardness higher than 800 HV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Novel Platform to Predict the Mechanical Damage of a Miniature Mobile Haptic Actuator
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 156; doi:10.3390/mi8050156
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
PDF Full-text (14338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Impact characterization of a linear resonant actuator (LRA) is studied experimentally by a newly-developed drop tester, which can control various experimental uncertainties, such as rotational moment, air resistance, secondary impact, and so on. The feasibility of this test apparatus was verified by a
[...] Read more.
Impact characterization of a linear resonant actuator (LRA) is studied experimentally by a newly-developed drop tester, which can control various experimental uncertainties, such as rotational moment, air resistance, secondary impact, and so on. The feasibility of this test apparatus was verified by a comparison with a free fall test. By utilizing a high-speed camera and measuring the vibrational displacement of the spring material, the impact behavior was captured and the damping ratio of the system was defined. Based on the above processes, a finite element model was established and the experimental and analytical results were successfully correlated. Finally, the damage of the system from impact loading can be expected by the developed model and, as a result, this research can improve the impact reliability of the LRA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Fabrication of Disposable Micromixing Arrays Using Xurography and Laser Ablation
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 144; doi:10.3390/mi8050144
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We assessed xurography and laser ablation for the manufacture of passive micromixers arrays to explore the scalability of unconventional manufacture technologies that could be implemented under the restrictions of the Point of Care for developing countries. In this work, we present a novel
[...] Read more.
We assessed xurography and laser ablation for the manufacture of passive micromixers arrays to explore the scalability of unconventional manufacture technologies that could be implemented under the restrictions of the Point of Care for developing countries. In this work, we present a novel split-and-recombine (SAR) array design adapted for interfacing standardized dispensing (handheld micropipette) and sampling (microplate reader) equipment. The design was patterned and sealed from A4 sized vinyl sheets (polyvinyl chloride), employing low-cost disposable materials. Manufacture was evaluated measuring the dimensional error with stereoscopic and confocal microscopy. The micromixing efficiency was estimated using a machine vision system for passive driven infusion provided by micropippetting samples of dye and water. It was possible to employ rapid fabrication based on xurography to develop a four channel asymmetric split-and-recombine (ASAR) micromixer with mixing efficiencies ranging from 43% to 65%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Mesoscale Channel by Scanning Micro Electrochemical Flow Cell (SMEFC)
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 143; doi:10.3390/mi8050143
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
PDF Full-text (20731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A unique micro electrochemical machining (ECM) method based on a scanning micro electrochemical flow cell (SMEFC), in which the electrolyte is confined beneath the tool electrode instead of spreading on the workpiece surface, has been developed and its feasibility for fabricating mesoscale channels
[...] Read more.
A unique micro electrochemical machining (ECM) method based on a scanning micro electrochemical flow cell (SMEFC), in which the electrolyte is confined beneath the tool electrode instead of spreading on the workpiece surface, has been developed and its feasibility for fabricating mesoscale channels has been investigated. The effects of the surface conditions, the applied current, the feed rate, the concentration of the electrolyte and several geometrical parameters on the machining performance have been investigated through a series of experiments. The cross-sectional profile of the channels, the roughness of the channel bottom, the width and depth of the channel, the microstructures on the machined surface and the morphologies of the moving droplet have been analyzed and compared under different machining conditions. Furthermore, experiments with different overlaps of the electrolyte droplet traces have also been conducted, in which the SMEFC acts as a “milling tool”. The influences of the electrode offset distance (EOD), the current and the feed rate on the machining performance have also been examined through the comparison of the corresponding cross-sectional profiles and microstructures. The results indicate that, in addition to machining individual channels, the SMEFC system is also capable of generating shallow cavities with a suitable superimposed motion of the tool electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic-Assisted Incremental Microforming of Thin Shell Pyramids of Metallic Foil
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 142; doi:10.3390/mi8050142
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
PDF Full-text (9374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single point incremental forming is used for rapid prototyping of sheet metal parts. This forming technology was applied to the fabrication of thin shell micropyramids of aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium foils. A single point tool used had a tip radius of 0.1
[...] Read more.
Single point incremental forming is used for rapid prototyping of sheet metal parts. This forming technology was applied to the fabrication of thin shell micropyramids of aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium foils. A single point tool used had a tip radius of 0.1 mm or 0.01 mm. An ultrasonic spindle with axial vibration was implemented for improving the shape accuracy of micropyramids formed on 5–12 micrometers-thick aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium foils. The formability was also investigated by comparing the forming limits of micropyramids of aluminum foil formed with and without ultrasonic vibration. The shapes of pyramids incrementally formed were truncated pyramids, twisted pyramids, stepwise pyramids, and star pyramids about 1 mm in size. A much smaller truncated pyramid was formed only for titanium foil for qualitative investigation of the size reduction on forming accuracy. It was found that the ultrasonic vibration improved the shape accuracy of the formed pyramids. In addition, laser heating increased the forming limit of aluminum foil and it is more effective when both the ultrasonic vibration and laser heating are applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of the Effect of Process Variations on a Micromachined Doubly-Clamped Beam
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 81; doi:10.3390/mi8030081
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
PDF Full-text (5330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be
[...] Read more.
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be determined by design parameter ranges and distribution functions. Topographical changes constitute process variations, such as inclination, over-etching, and undulating sidewalls in the Bosch process. In this paper, analytical models are first developed for MEMS doubly-clamped beams, concerning the mentioned geometrical variations. Then, finite-element (FE) analysis is performed to provide a guidance for model verifications. It is found that results predicted by the models agree with those of FE analysis. Assigning process variations, predictions for performance as well as yield can be made directly from the analytical models, by means of probabilistic analysis. In this paper, the footing effect is found to have a more profound effect on the resonant frequency of doubly-clamped beams during the Bosch process. As the confining process has a variation of 10.0%, the yield will have a reduction of 77.3% consequently. Under these circumstances, the prediction approaches can be utilized to guide the further MEMS device designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effects of Profile Errors of Microlens Surfaces on Laser Beam Homogenization
Micromachines 2017, 8(2), 50; doi:10.3390/mi8020050
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
PDF Full-text (4722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface
[...] Read more.
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface profile mismatches between ideal and fabricated MLAs on beam homogenization were analyzed. Four types of surface profile errors of MLAs were modeled theoretically and numerical simulations were conducted to quantitatively estimate the effects of these profile errors on beam homogenization. In addition, experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results, revealing that profile errors leading to optical deviations located on the apex of microlenses affected beam homogenization less than deviations located further away from it. This study can provide references for the further applications of MLAs in beam homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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