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Special Issue "Micro/Nano Manufacturing"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Niels Koppels Allé, Building 404, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Produktionstorvet Building 425, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro- and nano-scale polymer manufacturing; micro- and nano-metrology; additive manufacturing; surface replication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of more and more research and industrial focus over the past 10 years. Traditional lithography-based technology forms the basis of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology platforms are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via injection molding. Manufacturing processes at the micro-scale are the key-enabling technologies to bridge the gap between the nano- and the macro-worlds to increase the accuracy of micro/nano-precision production technologies, and to integrate different dimensional scales in mass-manufacturing processes. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in micro- and nano-scale manufacturing, i.e., on novel process chains including process optimization, quality assurance approaches and metrology.

We look forward to receiving your submissions!

Prof. Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen
Prof. Dr. Guido Tosello
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

•    Micro- and nano-manufacturing
•    Process chains
•    Micro- and nano-metrology
•    Micro- and nano-scale replication

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Modeling of the Effect of Process Variations on a Micromachined Doubly-Clamped Beam
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 81; doi:10.3390/mi8030081
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be
[...] Read more.
In the fabrication of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, manufacturing process variations are usually involved. For these devices sensitive to process variations such as doubly-clamped beams, mismatches between designs and final products will exist. As a result, it underlies yield problems and will be determined by design parameter ranges and distribution functions. Topographical changes constitute process variations, such as inclination, over-etching, and undulating sidewalls in the Bosch process. In this paper, analytical models are first developed for MEMS doubly-clamped beams, concerning the mentioned geometrical variations. Then, finite-element (FE) analysis is performed to provide a guidance for model verifications. It is found that results predicted by the models agree with those of FE analysis. Assigning process variations, predictions for performance as well as yield can be made directly from the analytical models, by means of probabilistic analysis. In this paper, the footing effect is found to have a more profound effect on the resonant frequency of doubly-clamped beams during the Bosch process. As the confining process has a variation of 10.0%, the yield will have a reduction of 77.3% consequently. Under these circumstances, the prediction approaches can be utilized to guide the further MEMS device designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effects of Profile Errors of Microlens Surfaces on Laser Beam Homogenization
Micromachines 2017, 8(2), 50; doi:10.3390/mi8020050
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface
[...] Read more.
Microlens arrays (MLAs) are key optical components in laser beam homogenization. However, due to imperfect surface profiles resulting from microfabrication, the functionalities of MLAs in beam modulation could be compromised to some extent. In order to address this issue, the effects of surface profile mismatches between ideal and fabricated MLAs on beam homogenization were analyzed. Four types of surface profile errors of MLAs were modeled theoretically and numerical simulations were conducted to quantitatively estimate the effects of these profile errors on beam homogenization. In addition, experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results, revealing that profile errors leading to optical deviations located on the apex of microlenses affected beam homogenization less than deviations located further away from it. This study can provide references for the further applications of MLAs in beam homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Manufacturing)
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative Title: Low Temperature Plasma Nitriding of Inner Surfaces in the Stainless Steel Mini-/Micro-Pipes and Nozzles for Industries
Authors: Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Kenji Wasa
Abstract: Metallic miniature products have been high-lighted as a mini-/micro- structural components working in the precise mechanism, the dispensing systems, and in the medical operations. In particular, the essential mechanical parts like pipes and nozzles have sufficient strength and hardness against the viscous liquids, the solders, and the particles. Low temperature plasma nitriding process was proposed as a surface treatment to improve the engineering durability of stainless steel mini-/micro-pipes and nozzles. SEM, EDX and EBSD analyses were performed to describe the inner nitriding process from the inner surface of pipes and nozzles to the depth in their thickness. AISI316 pipes and nozzle specimens were used to demonstrate that their inner surfaces had higher hardness than 800 HV by solid solution hardening after plasma nitriding for 14.4 ks at 693 K.

Tentative Title: Finite Element Analysis of Vibration Characteristics for Damaged Haptic Actuator by Drop Impact
Authors: Byung-Joo Choi, Yong-Ho Jeon, Moon-Gu Lee*
Abstract: Recently, the development of haptic actuators has provided a sense of touch via vibration together with visual and auditory perception to users. This provides a realistic experience to users. But the haptic actuator is vulnerable to impact because it has a small and thin spring with a moving mass. Therefore, industry has durability criteria against impact before applying haptic components. The criteria is that the component should have a malfunction of less than 10 % when dropped from a height of 1.8 m. Thus, the industry has carried out the drop test and impact analysis. However, since the haptic actuator has a small size of less than 10 mm, the impact test is difficult and the accuracy of the analysis modeling is poor. In this study, the analysis was performed considering the small and complex geometry, high strain material properties (Johnson Cook strength model) and the damping coefficient of the spring. Especially, the model can take account of the effect of plastic deformation on the vibration characteristics because the haptic component deforms after drop. And experimental verification of the analytical model was performed for the correlation. As a result, we established a verified drop analysis finite element model and it can consider the vibration characteristics of plastic-deformed spring. This model can help the process for the haptic design and shorten the lead-time to development of mobile devices.

Title: Surface nanostructuring of steel inserts for the injection molding of immunoassay biochips
Authors: BLONDIAUX Nicolas; PUGIN Raphaël
Abstract: We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts have been textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication of structures with lateral dimensions of few hundreds of nanometers and aspect ratios up to 1:2. Nanostructured plastic parts have been produced by means of hot embossing and injection molding. Surface nanostructuring has been used to control wettability and increase the sensitivity of the immunoassay.

Title: Ultrasonic-assisted incremental microforming of thin shell pyramids of metallic foil
Authors: Toshiyuki Obikawa, Mamoru Hayashi, Tsuyoshi Takeoka, Ryutaro Suzuki
Abstract: Single point incremental forming is used for rapid prototyping of sheet metal parts. This forming technology was applied to the fabrication of thin shell micropyramids of aluminum and stainless steel foils. A single point tool used had a tip radius of 100 mm. An ultrasonic spindle with axial vibration was implemented for improving the shape accuracy of micropyramids formed on 6.5 and 12 mm-thick aluminum foils. The formability was also investigated by comparing the forming limits of micropyramids formed with and without ultrasonic vibration. The shapes of pyramids incrementally formed were truncated pyramids, twisted pyramids, stepwise pyramids and star pyramids in a size of around a millimeter. It was found that the ultrasonic vibration improved the shape accuracy of the formed pyramids. In addition, laser heating increased the forming limit of aluminum foil and it is more effective when both the ultrasonic vibration and laser heating are applied.
Keywords: incremental microforming; ultrasonic spindle; shin shell micropyramid; metallic foil; forming limit; shape accuracy

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