Special Issue "MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Shih-Chi Chen

Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +852-3943-4136
Fax: +852-2603-6002
Interests: microsystems; optics and ultrafast laser applications; precision engineering; nanomanufacturing
Guest Editor
Prof. Wei-Chuan Shih

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-713-743-4454
Interests: nanobiophotonics; hyperspectral imaging; microsystems; plasmonic engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past two decades, a variety of small-scale optical imaging and sensing devices have been developed, based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) technologies, enabling effective miniaturization and performance improvement of basic optical elements, such as high-speed scanner, i.e., micromirror,  tunable gratings, waveguides, filters etc., thereby realizing the development of complex optical systems, e.g., miniaturized nonlinear microscopes, endomicscopes, silicon optical bench, etc. In terms of sensing, MEMS/NEMS technologies have broadened the horizon of optical and biomolecular sensing, enabling various biological and medical applications through metamaterials,  photonic crystals and plasmonics on various platforms, e.g., optofluidic resonators, nanoparticles, optical coatings and nanostructures, etc. To realize the full potential of MEMS/NEMS in biophotonics and address the practical applications of new emerging methods, this Special Issue calls for research papers, communications, and review articles that focus on new biomedical imaging and sensing methods enabled by MEMS or NEMS. This issue also welcomes submissions addressing new micro-optical elements and sensing techniques based on MEMS/NEMS technologies for the design, integration, and optimization of complex systems.

Prof. Shih-Chi Chen
Prof. Wei-Chuan Shih
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomedical imaging
  • endomicroscope
  • MEMS-scanners
  • biophotonics
  • NEMS sensors

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Endoscopic Imaging Technology Based on MEMS Sensors and Actuators
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 210; doi:10.3390/mi8070210
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Over the last decade, optical fiber-based forms of microscopy and endoscopy have extended the realm of applicability for many imaging modalities. Optical fiber-based imaging modalities permit the use of remote illumination sources and enable flexible forms supporting the creation of portable and hand-held
[...] Read more.
Over the last decade, optical fiber-based forms of microscopy and endoscopy have extended the realm of applicability for many imaging modalities. Optical fiber-based imaging modalities permit the use of remote illumination sources and enable flexible forms supporting the creation of portable and hand-held imaging instrumentations to interrogate within hollow tissue cavities. A common challenge in the development of such devices is the design and integration of miniaturized optical and mechanical components. Until recently, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors and actuators have been playing a key role in shaping the miniaturization of these components. This is due to the precision mechanics of MEMS, microfabrication techniques, and optical functionality enabling a wide variety of movable and tunable mirrors, lenses, filters, and other optical structures. Many promising results from MEMS based optical fiber endoscopy have demonstrated great potentials for clinical translation. In this article, reviews of MEMS sensors and actuators for various fiber-optical endoscopy such as fluorescence, optical coherence tomography, confocal, photo-acoustic, and two-photon imaging modalities will be discussed. This advanced MEMS based optical fiber endoscopy can provide cellular and molecular features with deep tissue penetration enabling guided resections and early cancer assessment to better treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle 3-Dimensional Plasmonic Substrates Based on Chicken Eggshell Bio-Templates for SERS-Based Bio-Sensing
Micromachines 2017, 8(6), 196; doi:10.3390/mi8060196
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A simple technique is presented to fabricate stable and reproducible plasmonic substrates using chicken eggshell as bio-templates, an otherwise everyday waste material. The 3-dimensional (3D) submicron features on the outer shell (OS), inner shell (IS), and shell membrane (SM) regions are sputter coated
[...] Read more.
A simple technique is presented to fabricate stable and reproducible plasmonic substrates using chicken eggshell as bio-templates, an otherwise everyday waste material. The 3-dimensional (3D) submicron features on the outer shell (OS), inner shell (IS), and shell membrane (SM) regions are sputter coated with gold and characterized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance with respect to coating thickness, enhancement factor (EF), hot-spots distribution, and reproducibility. The OS and IS substrates have similar EF (2.6 × 106 and 1.8 × 106, respectively), while the SM provides smaller EF (1.5 × 105) due to its larger characteristic feature size. The variability from them (calculated as relative standard deviation, %RSD) are less than 7, 15, and 9 for the OS, IS, and SM substrates, respectively. Due to the larger EF and better signal reproducibility, the OS region is used for label-free sensing and identification of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria as an example of the potential SERS applications. It is demonstrated that the detection limit could reach the level of single bacterial cells. The OS and IS regions are also used as templates to fabricate 3D flexible SERS substrates using polydimethylsiloxane and characterized. The simple, low-cost, and green route of fabricating plasmonic substrates represents an innovative alternative approach without the needs for nanofabrication facilities. Coupled with hyperspectral Raman imaging, high-throughput bio-sensing can be carried out at the single pathogen level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Axial Resolution of Wide-Field Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy by Line Scanning Using a Digital Micromirror Device
Micromachines 2017, 8(3), 85; doi:10.3390/mi8030085
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy is a technique for performing highly parallelized multiphoton microscopy while still maintaining depth discrimination. While the conventional wide-field configuration for temporal focusing suffers from sub-optimal axial resolution, line scanning temporal focusing, implemented here using a digital micromirror device (DMD),
[...] Read more.
Temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy is a technique for performing highly parallelized multiphoton microscopy while still maintaining depth discrimination. While the conventional wide-field configuration for temporal focusing suffers from sub-optimal axial resolution, line scanning temporal focusing, implemented here using a digital micromirror device (DMD), can provide substantial improvement. The DMD-based line scanning temporal focusing technique dynamically trades off the degree of parallelization, and hence imaging speed, for axial resolution, allowing performance parameters to be adapted to the experimental requirements. We demonstrate this new instrument in calibration specimens and in biological specimens, including a mouse kidney slice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Variable-Focus Liquid Lens Integrated with a Planar Electromagnetic Actuator
Micromachines 2016, 7(10), 190; doi:10.3390/mi7100190
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, we design, fabricate and characterize a new electromagnetically actuated variable-focus liquid lens which consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrates, a SU-8 substrate, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, a permanent magnet and a planar electromagnetic actuator. The performance of this liquid
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In this paper, we design, fabricate and characterize a new electromagnetically actuated variable-focus liquid lens which consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrates, a SU-8 substrate, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, a permanent magnet and a planar electromagnetic actuator. The performance of this liquid lens is tested from four aspects including surface profiling, optical observation, variation of focal length and dynamic response speed. The results shows that with increasing current, the optical chamber PDMS membrane bulges up into a shape with a smaller radius of curvature, and the picture recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through the liquid lens also gradually becomes blurred. As the current changes from −1 to 1.2 A, the whole measured focal length of the proposed liquid lens ranges from −133 to −390 mm and from 389 to 61 mm. Then a 0.8 A square-wave current is applied to the electrode, and the actuation time and relaxation time are 340 and 460 ms, respectively. The liquid lens proposed in the paper is easily integrated with microfluidic chips and medical detecting instruments due to its planar structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Wide Field-of-View Fluorescence Imaging with Optical-Quality Curved Microfluidic Chamber for Absolute Cell Counting
Micromachines 2016, 7(7), 125; doi:10.3390/mi7070125
Received: 21 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide
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Field curvature and other aberrations are encountered inevitably when designing a compact fluorescence imaging system with a simple lens. Although multiple lens elements can be used to correct most such aberrations, doing so increases system cost and complexity. Herein, we propose a wide field-of-view (FOV) fluorescence imaging method with an unconventional optical-quality curved sample chamber that corrects the field curvature caused by a simple lens. Our optics simulations and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that a curved substrate with lens-dependent curvature can reduce greatly the distortion in an image taken with a conventional planar detector. Following the validation study, we designed a curved sample chamber that can contain a known amount of sample volume and fabricated it at reasonable cost using plastic injection molding. At a magnification factor of approximately 0.6, the curved chamber provides a clear view of approximately 119 mm2, which is approximately two times larger than the aberration-free area of a planar chamber. Remarkably, a fluorescence image of microbeads in the curved chamber exhibits almost uniform intensity over the entire field even with a simple lens imaging system, whereas the distorted boundary region has much lower brightness than the central area in the planar chamber. The absolute count of white blood cells stained with a fluorescence dye was in good agreement with that obtained by a commercially available conventional microscopy system. Hence, a wide FOV imaging system with the proposed curved sample chamber would enable us to acquire an undistorted image of a large sample volume without requiring a time-consuming scanning process in point-of-care diagnostic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS/NEMS for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
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