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Special Issue "Advances in Mechanical Problems of Functionally Graded Materials and Structures"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tinh Quoc Bui

Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 2-12-1-W8-22, Ookayama, Meguro-ku Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: computational mechanics; fracture mechanics; composites; functionally graded materials; numerical methods; computational inelasticity; structures
Guest Editor
Dr. Le Van Lich

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
E-Mail
Interests: multifunctional materials; smart materials; fracture mechanics; multiphysics properties
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tiantang Yu

Department of Engineering Mechanics, Hohai University, Nanjing, PR China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: functionally graded materials; composites; computational mechanics; numerical methods; structures; mechanics of materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Indra Vir Singh

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand, India
Website | E-Mail
Interests: computational mechanics; functionally graded materials; failure analysis; fatigue; numerical method

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functionally-graded materials (FGMs) are an advanced class of composite materials that exhibit continuous variations of properties, arising from spatial gradation in composition. Engineering FGM structures, thus, integrates the advantageous properties of constituent compounds. Research and development in the area of mechanics of FGMs have made great leaps towards the application of FGM structures in various engineering fields, such as aerospace, aircrafts, engine combustion chambers, fusion reactors, and biomedical devices. In addition, recent developments in material science and computational technology have enabled us to make further advancements in the research area of FGM structures, and the enthusiasm of numerous research teams is still far from being exhausted.

This Special Issue aims to collect recent studies and developments associated with mechanical problems of FGMs and FGM structures. Manuscripts are invited from various researchers/investigators, to contribute to this Special Issue with their original research articles, short communications, and review articles.

Prof. Dr. Tinh Quoc Bui
Dr. Le Van Lich
Prof. Dr. Tiantang Yu
Dr. Indra Vir Singh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

  • FGM structures

  • Thermal/Mechanical Properties

  • Fracture Mechanics of FGM

  • Mechanical Design.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle The Computation of Complex Dispersion and Properties of Evanescent Lamb Wave in Functionally Graded Piezoelectric-Piezomagnetic Plates
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071186
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM), with a gradual variation of the material properties in the desired direction(s), can improve the conversion of energy among mechanical, electric, and magnetic fields. Full dispersion relations and wave mode shapes are vital to understanding dynamic behaviors of
[...] Read more.
Functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM), with a gradual variation of the material properties in the desired direction(s), can improve the conversion of energy among mechanical, electric, and magnetic fields. Full dispersion relations and wave mode shapes are vital to understanding dynamic behaviors of structures made of FGPPM. In this paper, an analytic method based on polynomial expansions is proposed to investigate the complex-valued dispersion and the evanescent Lamb wave in FGPPM plates. Comparisons with other related studies are conducted to validate the correctness of the presented method. Characteristics of the guided wave, including propagating modes and evanescent modes, in various FGPPM plates are studied, and three-dimensional full dispersion and attenuation curves are plotted to gain a deeper insight into the nature of the evanescent wave. The influences of the gradient variation on the dispersion and the magneto-electromechanical coupling factor are illustrated. The displacement amplitude and electric potential and magnetic potential distributions are also discussed in detail. The obtained numerical results could be useful to design and optimize different sensors and transducers made of smart piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials with high performance by adjusting the gradient property. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Neuro-Fuzzy Modelling of the Metallic Surface Characterization on Linear Dry Contact between Plastic Material Reinforced with SGF and Alloyed Steel
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071181
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents the modelling of wear data resulting from linear dry contact using artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) with the aim of constructing predictor models for the depth and volume of the wear scar, with great impact
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the modelling of wear data resulting from linear dry contact using artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) with the aim of constructing predictor models for the depth and volume of the wear scar, with great impact in the characterization of new industrial processes utilizing existing materials. The dataset is the result of laboratory testing, presenting both numerical and categorical variables whose inclusion into the model allows for a number of possibilities. The width of the wear scar was measured on a microscope, and its depth was calculated. A multitude of experimental tests was performed with normal loads and different speeds, which led to some conclusive results, but in some cases, with relatively high variance. Various options for the automatic generation of fuzzy inference systems were also approached (genfis2). The innovative approach was compared with a baseline model featuring multivariate linear regression optimized using gradient descent, drawing on previous experimentation on the same dataset. The models developed can be implemented in future research and in practical applications under similar conditions, aiming to optimize performance by applying Computer Science. The obtained results lead to highly accurate prediction models which are further integrated into various metallic surface characterizations in the wear process for tribological and robotics research in new industrial processes using short glass fiber reinforced polymers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Electroelastic Solution for Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Circular Plates under the Action of Combined Mechanical Loads
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071168
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we obtained an electroelastic solution for functionally graded piezoelectric circular plates under the action of combined mechanical loads which include the uniformly distributed loads on the upper surface of the plate and the radial force and bending moment at the
[...] Read more.
In this study, we obtained an electroelastic solution for functionally graded piezoelectric circular plates under the action of combined mechanical loads which include the uniformly distributed loads on the upper surface of the plate and the radial force and bending moment at the periphery of the plate. All electroelastic materials parameters are assumed to vary according to the same gradient function along the thickness direction. The influence of different functionally graded parameters on the elastic displacement and elastic stress, as well as the electric displacement and electric potential, was discussed by a numerical example. The solution presented in this study is not only applicable to the case of combined loads, but also to the case of a single mechanical load. In addition, this solution reflects the influence of the function gradient on the pure piezoelectric plate, which is helpful to the refined analysis and optimization design of similar structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quadratic Solid–Shell Finite Elements for Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061046
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current contribution, prismatic and hexahedral quadratic solid–shell (SHB) finite elements are proposed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin structures made of functionally graded material (FGM). The proposed SHB finite elements are developed within a purely 3D framework, with displacements as
[...] Read more.
In the current contribution, prismatic and hexahedral quadratic solid–shell (SHB) finite elements are proposed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin structures made of functionally graded material (FGM). The proposed SHB finite elements are developed within a purely 3D framework, with displacements as the only degrees of freedom. Also, the in-plane reduced-integration technique is combined with the assumed-strain method to alleviate various locking phenomena. Furthermore, an arbitrary number of integration points are placed along a special direction, which represents the thickness. The developed elements are coupled with functionally graded behavior for the modeling of thin FGM plates. To this end, the Young modulus of the FGM plate is assumed to vary gradually in the thickness direction, according to a volume fraction distribution. The resulting formulations are implemented into the quasi-static ABAQUS/Standard finite element software in the framework of large displacements and rotations. Popular nonlinear benchmark problems are considered to assess the performance and accuracy of the proposed SHB elements. Comparisons with reference solutions from the literature demonstrate the good capabilities of the developed SHB elements for the 3D simulation of thin FGM plates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle One-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Analytical Solutions for Functionally Graded Beams with Different Moduli in Tension and Compression
Materials 2018, 11(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050830
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The material considered in this study not only has a functionally graded characteristic but also exhibits different tensile and compressive moduli of elasticity. One-dimensional and two-dimensional mechanical models for a functionally graded beam with a bimodular effect were established first. By taking the
[...] Read more.
The material considered in this study not only has a functionally graded characteristic but also exhibits different tensile and compressive moduli of elasticity. One-dimensional and two-dimensional mechanical models for a functionally graded beam with a bimodular effect were established first. By taking the grade function as an exponential expression, the analytical solutions of a bimodular functionally graded beam under pure bending and lateral-force bending were obtained. The regression from a two-dimensional solution to a one-dimensional solution is verified. The physical quantities in a bimodular functionally graded beam are compared with their counterparts in a classical problem and a functionally graded beam without a bimodular effect. The validity of the plane section assumption under pure bending and lateral-force bending is analyzed. Three typical cases that the tensile modulus is greater than, equal to, or less than the compressive modulus are discussed. The result indicates that due to the introduction of the bimodular functionally graded effect of the materials, the maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses may not take place at the bottom and top of the beam. The real location at which the maximum bending stress takes place is determined via the extreme condition for the analytical solution. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Quadratic solid-shell finite elements for geometrically nonlinear analysis of functionally graded material plates.

Author: Prof. Farid ABED-MERAIM

Abstract
In the current contribution, prismatic and hexahedral quadratic solid-shell (SHB) finite elements are proposed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin structures made of functionally graded materials (FGM). The concept of solid-shell finite elements combines the advantages of both solid and shell formulations. The proposed SHB finite elements are formulated within a purely three-dimensional framework, with displacements as the only degrees of freedom. Also, the in-plane reduced-integration technique is used along with the assumed-strain method to alleviate various locking phenomena. Furthermore, a special direction is chosen to represent the thickness, along which an arbitrary number of integration points are arranged. These advanced finite elements can be used for the 3D modeling of thin structures with only a single element layer and few integration points in the thickness direction, which makes them very attractive due to their low computational cost. Both versions of these elements (i.e., static implicit and dynamic explicit) have been implemented into ABAQUS software in the framework of large displacements and rotations. The developed elements are coupled with functionally graded behavior for the modeling of FGM thin plates. To this end, the elastic properties of the plate are assumed to vary gradually through the thickness, according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. The performance of the resulting SHB elements is assessed through the simulation of various nonlinear benchmark problems taken from the literature. The obtained results are in good agreement with reference solutions, which reveals that the developed SHB elements represent an interesting alternative to traditional solid and shell elements for the three-dimensional modeling of FGM thin structures.

Keywords
Quadratic solid-shell elements, finite elements, functionally graded materials, thin structures, geometrically nonlinear analysis

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