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Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis
G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 100 let Vladivostoku, 159, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2013; in revised form: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Abstract: This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs)). Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.
Keywords: sepsis; endotoxin; endotoxin antagonists; lipid A; chitosan; carrageenan
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MDPI and ACS Style
Solov'eva, T.; Davydova, V.; Krasikova, I.; Yermak, I. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2216-2229.
Solov'eva T, Davydova V, Krasikova I, Yermak I. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(6):2216-2229.
Solov'eva, Tamara; Davydova, Viktoria; Krasikova, Inna; Yermak, Irina. 2013. "Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 6: 2216-2229.