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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2413-2430; doi:10.3390/md11072413
Article

Hydrolysis of Fucoidan by Fucoidanase Isolated from the Marine Bacterium, Formosa algae

1
, 1,* , 1
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1 Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100 Let Vladivostok 159, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia 2 Far-Eastern Federal University, ul. Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok, 690950, Russia 3 Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Selskaya str. 1, Vladivostok, 690087, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
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Abstract

Intracellular fucoidanase was isolated from the marine bacterium, Formosa algae strain KMM 3553. The first appearance of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis products in a cell-free extract was detected after 4 h of bacterial growth, and maximal fucoidanase activity was observed after 12 h of growth. The fucoidanase displayed maximal activity in a wide range of pH values, from 6.5 to 9.1. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ cations strongly activated the enzyme; however, Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations had inhibitory effects on the enzymatic activity. The enzymatic activity of fucoidanase was considerably reduced after prolonged (about 60 min) incubation of the enzyme solution at 45 °C. The fucoidanase catalyzed the hydrolysis of fucoidans from Fucus evanescens and Fucus vesiculosus, but not from Saccharina cichorioides. The fucoidanase also did not hydrolyze carrageenan. Desulfated fucoidan from F. evanescens was hydrolysed very weakly in contrast to deacetylated fucoidan, which was hydrolysed more actively compared to the native fucoidan from F. evanescens. Analysis of the structure of the enzymatic products showed that the marine bacteria, F. algae, synthesized an α-l-fucanase with an endo-type action that is specific for 1→4-bonds in a polysaccharide molecule built up of alternating three- and four-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues sulfated mainly at position 2.
Keywords: fucoidanase; fucanase; marine bacteria; Formosa algae; fucoidan; Fucus evanescens fucoidanase; fucanase; marine bacteria; Formosa algae; fucoidan; Fucus evanescens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Silchenko, A.S.; Kusaykin, M.I.; Kurilenko, V.V.; Zakharenko, A.M.; Isakov, V.V.; Zaporozhets, T.S.; Gazha, A.K.; Zvyagintseva, T.N. Hydrolysis of Fucoidan by Fucoidanase Isolated from the Marine Bacterium, Formosa algae. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 2413-2430.

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