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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 1977-1998; doi:10.3390/md11061977
Article

Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter

1,* , 1
, 1
, 1
, 1
 and 1,2
1 Laboratory of Enzyme Chemistry, Laboratory of Microbiology and Laboratory of Molecular Biology of G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690022, Russia 2 School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690091, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
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Abstract

A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with five recognized species, and some presented three new species within the genus Arenibacter. No strains contained enzymes depolymerizing polysaccharides, but synthesized a wide spectrum of glycosidases. Highly active β-N-acetylglucosaminidases and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases were the main glycosidases for all Arenibacter. The genes, encoding two new members of glycoside hydrolyses (GH) families, 20 and 109, were isolated and characterized from the genomes of Arenibacter latericius. Molecular genetic analysis using glycosidase-specific primers shows the absence of GH27 and GH36 genes. A sequence comparison with functionally-characterized GH20 and GH109 enzymes shows that both sequences are closest to the enzymes of chitinolytic bacteria Vibrio furnissii and Cellulomonas fimi of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as human pathogen Elisabethkingia meningoseptica and simbionts Akkermansia muciniphila, gut and non-gut Bacteroides, respectively. These results revealed that the genus Arenibacter is a highly taxonomic diverse group of microorganisms, which can participate in degradation of natural polymers in marine environments depending on their niche and habitat adaptations. They are new prospective candidates for biotechnological applications due to their production of unique glycosidases.
Keywords: Bacteroidetes; Arenibacter; glycoside hydrolase; α-N-atcetylgalactosaminidase; β-N-acetylglucosaminidase Bacteroidetes; Arenibacter; glycoside hydrolase; α-N-atcetylgalactosaminidase; β-N-acetylglucosaminidase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bakunina, I.; Nedashkovskaya, O.; Balabanova, L.; Zvyagintseva, T.; Rasskasov, V.; Mikhailov, V. Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1977-1998.

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