Special Issue "Inhibitors of Melanogenesis Related Processes: Application to Food, Agricultural and Cosmetic Industry-2014"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2014

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Manickam Sugumaran
Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125, USA
E-Mail: manickam.sugumaran@umb.edu
Phone: +1 617 287 6598
Fax: +1 617 287 6650
Interests: enzymology; post translational modifications; aromatic metabolism; phenolic biochemistry; reactions of quinonoid compounds; invertebrate immunity; insect cuticular sclerotization; phenoloxidase; quinone isomerases; oxidative browning; melanin biosynthesis; catecholic antibiotics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Melanogenesis is a pigment-producing process that occurs ubiquitously in all animals, as well as in a wide variety of microorganisms and plants. The enzyme tyrosinase (also known as phenoloxidase) initiates melanogenesis by hydroxylating monophenols to create o-diphenols; these o-diphenols are further oxidized by tyrosinase into o-quinones. The unstable o-quinones undergo rapid transformations that are both nonenzymatic and enzyme catalyzed. Eventually, these transformations create different kinds of polymeric products.

Quinones in general are very reactive and tend to deplete cellular antioxidant pools. They also have deleterious effects on cellular macromolecules. In light of the above, inhibitors of melanogensis have great commercial potential.

For example, oxidative browning reactions reduce the nutritive values of plants. On the other hand, these reactions are advantageous for plants because they help fight off infection and invasion by other organisms. Nevertheless, oxidative browning certainly reduces the market value of food products.

The melanosis observed in crustaceans similarly reduces the market value of seafood drastically. In arthropods and especially insects, melanogenesis is used for wound healing and defense reactions (invertebrate immunity). A parallel process called sclerotization (which is initated through phenoloxidases), ensures the hardening of insect exoskeletons, so as to protect these soft-bodied animals from their environmental enemies. Arrest or even delay of sclerotization has devastating consequences for insects. Consequently, the inhibition of sclerotization provides a valuable tool for fighting noxious insects, and for developing new kinds of insecticides for future use.

Mammals use melanin mostly as skin, coat, and eye pigments. In recent years, dermal melanin production inhibitors have become a valuable tool for the cosmetic industry to produce lighter skin.

Thus, melanogenesis inhibitors have many useful applications. Naturally, lots of research groups have been engaged in discovering novel inhibitors of these enzymes. This Special Issue, which is the second of a series, will cover broad range topics, which include phenoloxidase/tyrosinase chemistry, biochemistry of inhibitors, and methods of either discovering or developing novel bioactive compounds (both natural and synthetic) that inhibit melanogenesis and related processes.  This new Special Issue aims to cover the most recent progress made in this area, and will include research papers and authoritative review articles.

Prof. Manickam Sugumaran
Guest Editor

You may also be interested in the recent IJMS special issue "Inhibitors of Melanogenesis Related Processes: Application to Food and Cosmetic Industry" (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/melanogenesis_related_processes).

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • phenoloxidase inhibitors
  • tyrosinase inhibitors
  • inhibitors of melanogenesis
  • skin color lightening
  • prevention of oxidative browning
  • cuticular sclerotization
  • invertebrate immunity and melanin

Published Papers

No papers have been published in this special issue yet, see below for planned papers.

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases as Emerging Tools for Targeted-based Cancer Cell Therapies
Author: Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi
Affiliation: Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Abstract: Currently, chemotherapeutic and cytotoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of cancer. However, in spite of the improvements in patients life quality, their effectiveness is severely compromised by immune-suppression, changes in the tumor microenvironment and deleterious effects on normal cells. This represents a demand for developing new effective strategies with focusing on tumor cells and minimum side-effects on normal cells. Targeted cellular and molecular therapies or "personalized medicine" have been defined as a new type of emerging treatments. Significant progresses in this field propose the possibilities of replacing current systemic chemotherapies with new emerging therapies. The growing number of approved small-molecule inhibitors (SMI) of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the clinical oncology implies on the increasing attention and application of these kinds of therapeutic tools. In this review we overview: (1) the molecular basis and function of SMIs targeting RTKs (2) the recent progresses in the development of SMIs in clinical development and treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors; (3) side effects and complications using SMIs; and (4) future trends of using SMIs in cancer treatment.

Type of Paper: Review
Title:
Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Leading to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation -Perspective of Anti-pigmenting Agents
Authors:
Genji Imokawa1,* and Koichi Ishida2
Affiliations:
1Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Aichi, Japan
2
Global R&D - Skin Beauty, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
*
To whom correspondence should be addressed: Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi, 487-8501 Japan, Tel/Fax: 0568-51-6189 E-mail: imokawag@dream.ocn.ne.jp
Abstract
: There is few anti-pigmenting agents which have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling. Most of anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which the normal level of skin color maintains. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining the topical application to the hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural non-stimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in normal skin color conditions and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation to cause hyperpigmentation, specifically down-regulating the over-activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate challenge for developing new potent anti-pigmenting agents. In this review article, we elucidate recent hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling leading to stimulated melanization and introduce a series of screening and evaluation system for selecting candidates of new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we here show that the extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera (mainly described in details) /Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A/ Astaxanthin would be new candidates for a potent anti-pigmenting substance which fulfills melanogenic requirements for circumventing the aforementioned risk.

Last update: 24 March 2014

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert