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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1677-1690; doi:10.3390/ijms16011677

The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis

1
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 369-837, Korea
2
Graduate School of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-706, Korea
3
Research & Development Center, GFC Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-813, Korea
4
College of Herbal Bio-industry, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 712-715, Korea
These authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manickam Sugumaran
Received: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 31 December 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [991 KB, uploaded 13 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Three minor ginsenosides, namely, ginsenoside Rh6 (1), vina-ginsenoside R4 (2) and vina-ginsenoside R13 (3), were isolated from the leaves of hydroponic Panax ginseng. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods, including fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), 1D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 2D-NMR, and, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The melanogenic inhibitory activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was 23.9%, 27.8% and 35.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 80 µM. Likewise, the three compounds showed inhibitory activity on body pigmentation on a zebrafish model, which is commonly used as a model for biomedical or cosmetic research. These results from in vitro and in vivo systems suggest that the three aforementioned compounds isolated from Panax ginseng may have potential as new skin whitening compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panax ginseng; melanogenesis; NMR; vina-ginsenoside Panax ginseng; melanogenesis; NMR; vina-ginsenoside
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, D.-Y.; Cha, B.-J.; Lee, Y.-S.; Kim, G.-S.; Noh, H.-J.; Kim, S.-Y.; Kang, H.C.; Kim, J.H.; Baek, N.-I. The Potential of Minor Ginsenosides Isolated from the Leaves of Panax ginseng as Inhibitors of Melanogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1677-1690.

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