The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these
manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers
submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: The Relationship between Folic Acid and Risk of Autism
Author: Yasmin Neggers
Affiliation: Department of Human Nutrition, The University of Alabama, Box 870311, Tuscaloosa AL 35487-0311, USA; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: There is considerable scientific evidence that many aspects of diet influence the occurrence of human disease. Prevalence and prevention of major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and more recently, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis and autism to name a few have been the objects of such research. In spite of the fact that many factors such as genetic, psychological, environmental and behavioral characteristics influence development of human disease, there is a close relationship between nutrition and disease. Even though typical Western diets are not overtly deficient in essential nutrients, nutriture of a few micro nutrients such as folic acid has been reported to be sub-optimal, particularly in women of childbearing age. Folic acid is needed for cell differentiation and growth and is necessary for functions of the nervous system. The role of folic acid in prevention of macrocytic anemia and neural tube defects is well established. However, the relationship between folic acid and risk of autism is still evolving. In this article, recent research regarding the relationship between folic acid and risk of autism is evaluated.
Keywords: Micronutrients; dietary patterns; folic acid; autism
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Telehealth Coaching to Promote Bone Health and Nutrition in Deployed Soldiers
Authors: Mary S. McCarthy
Affiliation: Center for Nursing Science & Clinical Inquiry, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA 98388, USA; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if telehealth coaching is superior to one-time nutrition and fitness education regarding: a) dietary contributions to bone health, and b) exercise contributions to bone health, assessed before and after deployment. Young service men and women are returning from war with significant physical injuries, as well as “wear and tear” from long work hours, heavy body armor, and alterations in diet and exercise behaviors. This is the second in a series of studies examining the impact of deployment specifically on bone health and nutrition. Previous findings have demonstrated that inadequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D and a decrease in exercise while deployed can be detrimental to bone health. This prospective, longitudinal, cluster-randomized, controlled trial enrolled 234 Soldiers at baseline; 155 returned from deployment with 85 in the telehealth group and 70 in the control group, yielding a 34% attrition rate. All Soldiers received a nutrition and bone health class prior to deployment; Soldiers randomized to the telehealth intervention group received on-demand health-related messages via electronic mail platforms. Baseline 25(OH) vitamin D revealed a high rate of insufficiency (61%, level < 30 ng/mL) and moderate level of deficiency (17%, level < 20 ng/mL) in both groups. Soldier participants significantly improved their vitamin D levels post-deployment with the control group achieving a “sufficient” level; M=34.9 ng/mL. Post-deployment bone turnover measured by osteocalcin was significantly higher in the telehealth group (22.0 + 0.99 vs 28.3 + 1.1 ng/mL; p = 0.01) and change in sport index was positive for this group but negative for the control group (-0.17 + .09 vs 0.29 + 0.11; p = .01). Improving vitamin D status and remaining active while deployed appears to sustain healthy bone density in young Soldiers. Bone density remained stable with no significant difference between groups. Early and aggressive educational outreach efforts can prevent chronic musculoskeletal conditions and disabling osteoporosis.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Prevention of diabetes after gestational diabetes: better translation of nutrition and lifestyle messages needed
Author: Sharleen O’Reilly
Affiliation: Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia; E-Mails: email@example.com; Tel.: +61-3-9244-6778; Fax: +61-3-9244-4219.
Abstract: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Gestational Diabetes (GDM) are important and escalating problems worldwide. GDM increases the risk of complications in pregnancy and birth, as well as a 1 in 2 chance of developing T2DM later in life. The burden of GDM extends to offspring, who have an increased risk of obesity and diabetes – further perpetuating the cycle of diabetes within families. Clinical trial evidence demonstrates T2DM incidence reduced by up to 50% for women with GDM with nutrition and physical activity changes and the economic modeling suggests cost effectiveness. The key diet-related changes to reduce T2DM risk are reviewed, in addition to breastfeeding. The difficulties associated with the delivery of dietary and lifestyle behaviour change to women after GDM are discussed and focus on the complex healthcare system interactions needed for care delivery, women finding postpartum self-care challenging and low levels of awareness being present across the board. In addition, studies currently underway to improve care provision in this important area will be examined.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Dietary intake is related to multifactor cardiovascular risk score in obese boys
Authors: Tracy L Schumacher (B.HSc)1,2, Tracy L Burrows (PhD)1,2, Dylan P Cliff (PhD)3, Rachel A Jones (PhD)3, Anthony D Okely (PhD)3, Louise A Baur (PhD)4 , Philip J Morgan (PhD)2,5, Robin Callister (PhD)2,6, May M Boggess (PhD)1,7, Clare E Collins (PhD)1,2§
Abstract: Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates in childhood and early identification of risk factors provides an opportunity for early intervention and prevention. CVD risk factors are known to cluster in children. The aim was to develop a multifactor CVD risk score to identify children at higher risk. Methods: Individual CVD risk scores were developed using normal pediatric reference ranges for 10 common biomedical risk factors, summed in a multifactor CVD risk score and applied to a sample of 285 observations from 136 overweight Australian children (41% male, aged 7-12 years). Risk was scored as high (≥97.5th centile), intermediate (≥95th), threshold (≥90th) or low (<90th) with three, two, one and zero points awarded respectively. Strength of associations between CVD risk and individual biomedical and dietary variables were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Results: High waist circumference (Odds Ratio: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.60-11.55), body mass index (OR: 3.22, 95% CI: 1.98 -5.26), serum insulin (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.56-4.42) and triglycerides (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 2.22-4.12) were all significantly related to CVD risk score, indicating that overweight children were more likely to have >1 risk factor. High intakes of total fat (OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 1.19-16.60), sugar (OR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.54-5.15) and carbohydrate (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.11-2.77) were significantly related to CVD risk in boys only. Conclusion: This multifactor CVD risk score could be a useful tool for researchers to identify elevated risk in children. Further research is warranted to examine sex-specific dietary factors related to CVD risk in children.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Fat Intake and Mental Health in Mid Aged Australian Women
Authors: Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lee Ting, Amanda Patterson; David Sibritt
Affiliations: Nutrition and Dietetics, School Health Sciences, Faculty Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle (UoN), University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Emerging evidence relates dietary intake of unsaturated fats to mental well-being. However, the relationship between dietary intake of unsaturated fats and depression or anxiety remains poorly understood. The aim of this paper was to undertake a cross-sectional analysis of the dietary intake of unsaturated fats in a mid-aged cohort of Australian women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (n= 9530; 50 – 55yo in 2001) and their relationship with markers of mental well-being (CESD-10 and SF36 Mental Health subscale). The study found that for every one unit increase in oleic acid (OA), the odds of diagnosed depression declines by 1% (Odd Ratio (OR)=0.99; p=0.03). Moreover, positive associations between total omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (n-9 MUFAs) and OA and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Mental Health subscale scores were found. Therefore, in a nationally representative sample of Australian mid-aged women, higher OA intake was inversely associated with the risk of depression, and both higher OA and total n-9 MUFAs intakes were associated with better mental health outcomes. Further prospective observational studies and trials with regular follow-up are required to confirm the association.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Exploiting Food Resources: Risks and Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities of Sorghum
Authors: Proietti I., Frazzoli C. and Mantovani A.
Affiliation: Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit, Dept. Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
Abstract: Food security challenges, including climate changes and population growth, call for attention towards currently neglected food resources, like sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a drought-resistant crop important in terms of nutritional, economic and social value, especially in semi-arid environments; it is a gluten-free staple food also valuable for people with celiac disease and gluten intolerance. Sorghum weaknesses include susceptibility to mycotoxins contamination, amino acid imbalance and endogenous anti- nutrients that partly impair its nutritional potential. This paper reviews and discusses pros and cons of sorghum as food source and investigate approaches for improving its risk-benefit balance, such as landraces selection and characterization of local food processing methods.