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Special Issue "Advances in Hybrid Vehicles"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. K.T. Chau

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electric and hybrid vehicles; machines and drives; renewable and clean energies; power electronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Among various types of electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)—or as they are commonly dubbed “hybrid vehicles”—offer the distinct advantages of energy diversification, versatile operation, long driving range and high sustainability.

This Special Issue entitled “Advances in Hybrid Vehicles” invites articles that address state-of-the-art technologies and new developments for HEVs, including but not limited to hybrid powertrains, hybrid energy sources, energy management systems, energy refueling systems, regenerative braking systems and system integration. Articles which deal with the latest hot topics for HEVs are particularly encouraged, such as advanced motor drives, advanced power electronics, integrated-starter-generators, electric variable transmission systems, vehicle-to-grid technology, on-board energy harvesting and wireless charging technology. Also, articles which discuss the relationships between the use of HEVs and the energy, environment and economy would be of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. K.T. Chau
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • hybrid vehicles
  • powertrains
  • motor drives
  • power electronics
  • energy sources
  • vehicle-to-grid
  • energy management
  • charging
  • braking

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5374-5399; doi:10.3390/en7085374
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel,
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal battery size for PHEVs in Beijing is 6–8 kWh. Several additional scenarios are also analyzed: (1) 10% increase in battery price or discount rate leads to an optimal battery size of 6 kWh, and 10% increase in fuel price shifts the optimal battery size to 8 kWh; (2) the longer and more dispersive daily range distribution in the U.S. increases the optimal battery size to 14 kWh; (3) the subsidy in China results in an optimal battery size of 13 kWh, while that in the U.S. results in 17 kWh, and a fuel savings rate based subsidy policy is innovatively proposed; (4) the optimal battery size with Li4Ti5O12 batteries is 2 kWh, but the TCO of Li4Ti5O12 batteries is higher than that of LiFePO4 batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Topology of a Bidirectional Converter for Energy Interaction between Electric Vehicles and the Grid
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4858-4894; doi:10.3390/en7084858
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems, electric vehicles interact with the grid as distributed energy storage systems that offer many potential benefits. As an energy interface between a vehicle and the grid, the bidirectional converter plays a crucial role in their interaction. Its reliability, safety,
[...] Read more.
In vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems, electric vehicles interact with the grid as distributed energy storage systems that offer many potential benefits. As an energy interface between a vehicle and the grid, the bidirectional converter plays a crucial role in their interaction. Its reliability, safety, cost, efficiency, weight, size, harmonics, and other factors are of essential importance for V2G realization, especially for on-board operations. Beyond the common existing topologies for bidirectional chargers, this paper introduces a novel high-power-factor bidirectional single-stage full-bridge (BSS-FBC) topology, which offers advantages in power density, size, weight, cost, efficiency, power quality, dynamic characteristic, reliability, and complexity. Its operational principles and control strategies are presented. Harmonic analysis on the basis of double-Fourier integral is performed with detailed comparison of line current harmonic characteristics between the BSS-FBC topology and unipolar/bipolar controlled single-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) converters. A dynamic model of the topology is derived, its dynamic behavior analyzed, and its compensator design method developed. Simulation and experimental results are employed to verify the design and analysis. Design considerations for the key parameters are discussed. A 3.3 kW prototype is developed for this topology and validated in its vehicle applications. The results demonstrate clearly the benefits and advantages of the new topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle A Neural Network Combined Inverse Controller for a Two-Rear-Wheel Independently Driven Electric Vehicle
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4614-4628; doi:10.3390/en7074614
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vehicle active safety control is attracting ever increasing attention in the attempt to improve the stability and the maneuverability of electric vehicles. In this paper, a neural network combined inverse (NNCI) controller is proposed, incorporating the merits of left-inversion and right-inversion. As the
[...] Read more.
Vehicle active safety control is attracting ever increasing attention in the attempt to improve the stability and the maneuverability of electric vehicles. In this paper, a neural network combined inverse (NNCI) controller is proposed, incorporating the merits of left-inversion and right-inversion. As the left-inversion soft-sensor can estimate the sideslip angle, while the right-inversion is utilized to decouple control. Then, the proposed NNCI controller not only linearizes and decouples the original nonlinear system, but also directly obtains immeasurable state feedback in constructing the right-inversion. Hence, the proposed controller is very practical in engineering applications. The proposed system is co-simulated based on the vehicle simulation package CarSim in connection with Matlab/Simulink. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4648-4675; doi:10.3390/en7074648
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall
[...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4554-4570; doi:10.3390/en7074554
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO2 emissions
[...] Read more.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is currently only partially considered by the European regulation to foster the diffusion of pHEVs. Therefore, this paper aims to assess, through numerical simulation, the real performance of a test case pHEV, the energy management system (EMS) of which is targeted to the minimization of its overall CO2 emissions. The paper highlights, at the same time, the relevance of the CO2 production related to the battery recharge from the power grid. Different technologies mixes used to produce the electricity required for the battery recharge are also taken into account in order to assess the influence of this parameter on the vehicle CO2 emissions. Finally, since the operating cost still represents the main driver in orienting the customer’s choice, an alternative approach for the EMS, targeted to the minimization of this variable, is also analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4300-4315; doi:10.3390/en7074300
Received: 27 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1) Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2) how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs) and prolong the service life of batteries; (3) how to satisfy the energy requirements of
[...] Read more.
Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1) Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2) how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs) and prolong the service life of batteries; (3) how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs), have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS). The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP). Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving
Energies 2014, 7(7), 4202-4220; doi:10.3390/en7074202
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 24 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 1 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits
[...] Read more.
In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of a Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3955-3984; doi:10.3390/en7063955
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density, which makes it appropriate for use in electric vehicles. In view of the different connection types, the inside and outside stator windings can be driven in series or parallel, which results in the different performances of the magnetomotive force (MMF) and torque under open-circuit fault conditions. By decomposing the MMF, the reason that torque ripple increases after open-circuit faults is explained, and the relationship between MMF and torque is revealed. Then, the current control strategy is applied to adjust the open-circuit faults, and the electromagnetic analysis and MMF harmonics analysis are performed to interpret the phenomenon that the torque ripple is still larger than in the normal situation. The investigations are verified by finite element analysis results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analyses for Cross-Coupled Parameters in Automotive Powertrain Optimization
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3733-3747; doi:10.3390/en7063733
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When vehicle manufacturers are developing new hybrid and electric vehicles, modeling and simulation are frequently used to predict the performance of the new vehicles from an early stage in the product lifecycle. Typically, models are used to predict the range, performance and energy
[...] Read more.
When vehicle manufacturers are developing new hybrid and electric vehicles, modeling and simulation are frequently used to predict the performance of the new vehicles from an early stage in the product lifecycle. Typically, models are used to predict the range, performance and energy consumption of their future planned production vehicle; they also allow the designer to optimize a vehicle’s configuration. Another use for the models is in performing sensitivity analysis, which helps us understand which parameters have the most influence on model predictions and real-world behaviors. There are various techniques for sensitivity analysis, some are numerical, but the greatest insights are obtained analytically with sensitivity defined in terms of partial derivatives. Existing methods in the literature give us a useful, quantified measure of parameter sensitivity, a first-order effect, but they do not consider second-order effects. Second-order effects could give us additional insights: for example, a first order analysis might tell us that a limiting factor is the efficiency of the vehicle’s prime-mover; our new second order analysis will tell us how quickly the efficiency of the powertrain will become of greater significance. In this paper, we develop a method based on formal optimization mathematics for rapid second-order sensitivity analyses and illustrate these through a case study on a C-segment electric vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3748-3763; doi:10.3390/en7063748
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR) system for four-wheel drive (4WD) electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR) system for four-wheel drive (4WD) electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2014, 7(5), 3148-3178; doi:10.3390/en7053148
Received: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE) of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed. By extending the well-known
[...] Read more.
Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE) of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC) simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Charging Scheduling of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids by Heuristic Algorithms
Energies 2014, 7(4), 2449-2475; doi:10.3390/en7042449
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transportation electrification has become an important issue in recent decades and the large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has yet to be achieved. The smart coordination of EV demand addresses an improvement in the flexibility of power systems and reduces the costs
[...] Read more.
Transportation electrification has become an important issue in recent decades and the large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has yet to be achieved. The smart coordination of EV demand addresses an improvement in the flexibility of power systems and reduces the costs of power system investment. The uncertainty in EV drivers’ behaviour is one of the main problems to solve to obtain an optimal integration of EVs into power systems. In this paper, an optimisation algorithm to coordinate the charging of EVs has been developed and implemented using a Genetic Algorithm (GA), where thermal line limits, the load on transformers, voltage limits and parking availability patterns are taken into account to establish an optimal load pattern for EV charging-based reliability. This methodology has been applied to an existing residential low-voltage system. The results indicate that a smart charging schedule for EVs leads to a flattening of the load profile, peak load shaving and the prevention of the aging of power system elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1733-1749; doi:10.3390/en7031733
Received: 8 January 2014 / Revised: 8 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV) penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV) penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector and provide the demand side flexibility required by smart grids. On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. In order to quantify the electricity consumption increase due to the 100% EV penetration in the Nordic region to facilitate the power system planning studies, the day-ahead energy planning of EVs has been investigated with different EV charging scenarios. Five EV charging scenarios have been considered in the energy planning analysis which are: uncontrolled charging all day, uncontrolled charging at home, timed charging, spot price based charging all day and spot price based charging at home. The demand profiles of the five charging analysis show that timed charging is the least favorable charging option and the spot priced based EV charging might induce high peak demands. The EV charging demand will have a considerable share of the energy consumption in the future Nordic power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Electromagnetic Design of a New Electrically Controlled Magnetic Variable-Speed Gearing Machine
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1539-1554; doi:10.3390/en7031539
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a new electrically controlled magnetic variable-speed gearing (EC-MVSG) machine, which is capable of providing controllable gear ratios for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The key design feature involves the adoption of a magnetic gearing structure and acceptance of the memory
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new electrically controlled magnetic variable-speed gearing (EC-MVSG) machine, which is capable of providing controllable gear ratios for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The key design feature involves the adoption of a magnetic gearing structure and acceptance of the memory machine flux-mnemonic concept. Hence, the proposed machine can not only offer a gear-shifting mechanism for torque and speed transmission, but also provide variable gear ratios for torque and speed variation. The electromagnetic design is studied and discussed. The finite-element method is developed with the hysteresis model to verify the validity of the machine design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1467-1482; doi:10.3390/en7031467
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are
[...] Read more.
How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV) and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA) of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV), bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle A Magnetless Axial-Flux Machine for Range-Extended Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1483-1499; doi:10.3390/en7031483
Received: 10 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (4317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new magnetless axial-flux doubly-salient DC-field (AF-DSDC) machine is proposed and implemented into the application of a range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV). By employing the radial active part for the torque production, the proposed machine can produce satisfactory torque density to fulfill the requirements
[...] Read more.
A new magnetless axial-flux doubly-salient DC-field (AF-DSDC) machine is proposed and implemented into the application of a range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV). By employing the radial active part for the torque production, the proposed machine can produce satisfactory torque density to fulfill the requirements of the RE-EV system. With the support of the 3D finite element method (3D-FEM), the performances of the proposed machine are calculated and compared with the requirements of the typical passenger RE-EV applications. To offer a more comprehensive illustration, the common radial-flux (RF) machines are included for comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Cooling and Thermal-Measuring System of a Compound-Structure Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1393-1426; doi:10.3390/en7031393
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM) is a power-split device which can enable the internal combustion engine (ICE) to operate at optimum efficiency during all driving conditions by controlling its torque and speed. However, the CS-PMSM has more serious temperature rise and heat
[...] Read more.
The compound-structure permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-PMSM) is a power-split device which can enable the internal combustion engine (ICE) to operate at optimum efficiency during all driving conditions by controlling its torque and speed. However, the CS-PMSM has more serious temperature rise and heat dissipation problems than conventional permanent-magnet (PM) machines, especially when the CS-PMSM is running at low speed and under full load conditions. As the thermal resistance of double-layer air gaps is quite big, the hot spot proves to be in the inner winding rotor. To ensure the safe operation of the CS-PMSM, the use of forced-air and water cooling in the inner winding rotor are investigated. The study shows that the water cooling can provide a better cooling effect, but require a complicated mechanical structure. Considering the complexity of the high efficiency cooling system, a real-time temperature monitoring method is proposed and a temperature measuring system which can accurately measure the real-time temperature of multiple key points in the machine is developed to promptly adjust the operating and cooling conditions based on the measured temperature results. Finally, the temperature rise experiment of the CS-PMSM prototype is done and the simulation results are partly validated by the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1376-1392; doi:10.3390/en7031376
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 21 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS), an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS) for electric vehicles (EVs) was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS), an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS) for electric vehicles (EVs) was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC)-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC)-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Research on a 20-Slot/22-Pole Five-Phase Fault-Tolerant PMSM Used for Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1265-1287; doi:10.3390/en7031265
Received: 15 December 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 3 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a five-phase fault-tolerant permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) used for electric vehicles. In multiphase fault-tolerant PMSMs equipped with fractional-slot concentrated windings, excessive magneto-motive force (MMF) harmonics can lead to thermal demagnetization of the permanent magnets (PMs). In order to reduce the
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This paper presents a five-phase fault-tolerant permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) used for electric vehicles. In multiphase fault-tolerant PMSMs equipped with fractional-slot concentrated windings, excessive magneto-motive force (MMF) harmonics can lead to thermal demagnetization of the permanent magnets (PMs). In order to reduce the lower-order harmonics, the origins of the 2-pole harmonic in conventional winding configurations are investigated, and an unequal-turn winding configuration is applied to cancel the lower-order harmonics. The main electromagnetic performances of the unequal-turn winding configuration are investigated and compared with conventional winding topologies. Based on the principle of maintaining constant instantaneous power, the fault-tolerant control strategies for open-circuits of up to two phases are developed. All of the investigations are verified by finite element analysis (FEA) results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Planning Minimum Interurban Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles: Methodology and Application to Spain
Energies 2014, 7(3), 1207-1229; doi:10.3390/en7031207
Received: 25 December 2013 / Revised: 2 February 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 27 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of the research is to assess the minimum requirement of fast charging infrastructure to allow country-wide interurban electric vehicle (EV) mobility. Charging times comparable to fueling times in conventional internal combustion vehicles are nowadays feasible, given the current availability of fast
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The goal of the research is to assess the minimum requirement of fast charging infrastructure to allow country-wide interurban electric vehicle (EV) mobility. Charging times comparable to fueling times in conventional internal combustion vehicles are nowadays feasible, given the current availability of fast charging technologies. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of the planning method and the investment requirements for the necessary infrastructure, including the definition of the Maximum Distance between Fast Charge (MDFC) and the Basic Highway Charging Infrastructure (BHCI) concepts. According to the calculations, distance between stations will be region-dependent, influenced primarily by weather conditions. The study considers that the initial investment should be sufficient to promote the EV adoption, proposing an initial state-financed public infrastructure and, once the adoption rate for EVs increases, additional infrastructure will be likely developed through private investment. The Spanish network of state highways is used as a case study to demonstrate the methodology and calculate the investment required. Further, the results are discussed and quantitatively compared to other incentives and policies supporting EV technology adoption in the light-vehicle sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Research on the Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Electric Variable Transmissions
Energies 2014, 7(2), 934-960; doi:10.3390/en7020934
Received: 12 December 2013 / Revised: 26 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric variable transmission is a new electromechanical energy conversion device structure, which is especially suitable as the driving force distribution device for hybrid electric vehicles. This paper focuses on the power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicles based on an electric variable transmission,
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Electric variable transmission is a new electromechanical energy conversion device structure, which is especially suitable as the driving force distribution device for hybrid electric vehicles. This paper focuses on the power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicles based on an electric variable transmission, and a kind of hierarchical control ideology is proposed. The control strategy is composed of four control levels, namely analysis of force requirement, operation mode switching, force distribution and coordinate control, which are designed respectively in this paper. Then a simulation model is built based on the notion of energetic macroscopic representation, and an experimental test bench is built. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, and it can be taken as a new theory and method for the study of hybrid electric vehicle based on electric variable transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2014, 7(2), 961-971; doi:10.3390/en7020961
Received: 6 November 2013 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This
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High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs
Energies 2014, 7(2), 834-856; doi:10.3390/en7020834
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP) and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case
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This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP) and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC) reaches its boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors
Energies 2014, 7(1), 99-114; doi:10.3390/en7010099
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs). This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of
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Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs). This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC) motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC) is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Design of a Transverse-Flux Dual Rotor Machine for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6548-6568; doi:10.3390/en6126548
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel compound-structure transverse-flux permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-TFPMSM) is proposed in this paper, which is used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to fulfill the power-split function. The key component of the CS-TFPMSM is a brushless transverse-flux dual rotor machine (TFDRM). The TFDRM originates
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A novel compound-structure transverse-flux permanent-magnet synchronous machine (CS-TFPMSM) is proposed in this paper, which is used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to fulfill the power-split function. The key component of the CS-TFPMSM is a brushless transverse-flux dual rotor machine (TFDRM). The TFDRM originates from the transverse-flux machines, and is capable of speed adjustment between the transverse-flux rotor and the permanent-magnet rotor without using any brushes. The structure and principle of the TFDRM are described. The torque equations of the TFDRM are deduced, which are different from those of traditional machines. Based on the investigation, the TFDRM tends to have high leakage and a poor power factor. The method to obtain high power factor is discussed. The back electromotive force (BEMF) and torque of the TFDRM are simulated with the variation of parameters, such as pole-pair number, width of the permanent magnets (PMs), and so on. A prototype of a 10kW TFDRM is designed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6455-6475; doi:10.3390/en6126455
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance
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Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO). To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD) is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2013, 6(11), 6102-6119; doi:10.3390/en6116102
Received: 13 September 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If the integrated starter generator (ISG) motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and
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If the integrated starter generator (ISG) motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study on Different Energy Management Strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2013, 6(11), 5656-5675; doi:10.3390/en6115656
Received: 4 August 2013 / Revised: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have a larger battery and can replace a certain amount of conventional fossil fuels with grid electricity, which differs from the traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The application of the onboard electrical energy significantly influences the energy utilization
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Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have a larger battery and can replace a certain amount of conventional fossil fuels with grid electricity, which differs from the traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The application of the onboard electrical energy significantly influences the energy utilization efficiency and thus impacts the fuel economy. In this paper, the basic PHEV operation modes are defined as pure electric driving (PED), hybrid driving charge depleting (HDCD) and hybrid driving charge sustaining (HDCS) based on the battery state of charge (SoC) profile. For a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB), three different energy management strategies, which are combined with two or three of the basic operation modes, are put forward and comparatively examined based on simulation models. If some trip information can be approximately known in advance such as the trip distance and the mean power demand, the PED + HDCD + HDCS strategy comprised optimally of the PED mode, the HDCD mode and the HDCS mode would be the best energy management strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Investigation of a Novel 24-Slot/14-Pole Six-Phase Fault-Tolerant Modular Permanent-Magnet In-Wheel Motor for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2013, 6(10), 4980-5002; doi:10.3390/en6104980
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a six-phase fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with a novel 24-slot/14-pole combination is proposed as a high-performance actuator for wheel-driving electric vehicle (EV) applications. Feasible slot/pole combinations of the fractional-slot concentrated winding six-phase PMSM are elicited and analyzed
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In this paper, a six-phase fault-tolerant modular permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with a novel 24-slot/14-pole combination is proposed as a high-performance actuator for wheel-driving electric vehicle (EV) applications. Feasible slot/pole combinations of the fractional-slot concentrated winding six-phase PMSM are elicited and analyzed for scheme selection. The novel 24-slot/14-pole combination is derived from the analysis and suppression of the magnetomotive force (MMF) harmonics. By making use of alternate-teeth-wound concentrated winding configuration, two adjacent coils per phase and unequal teeth widths, the phase windings of the proposed machine is magnetically, thermally isolated, which offers potentials of modular design and fault tolerant capability. Taking advantage of the leakage component of winding inductance, 1.0 per unit short-circuit current is achieved endowing the machine with short-circuit proof capability. Optimal design of essential parameters aiming at low eddy current losses, high winding factor and short-circuit-proof ability are presented to pave the way for a high-quality system implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Research on an Axial Magnetic-Field-Modulated Brushless Double Rotor Machine
Energies 2013, 6(9), 4799-4829; doi:10.3390/en6094799
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 1 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Double rotor machine, an electronic continuously variable transmission, has great potential in application of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), wind power and marine propulsion. In this paper, an axial magnetic-field-modulated brushless double rotor machine (MFM-BDRM), which can realize the speed decoupling between the shaft
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Double rotor machine, an electronic continuously variable transmission, has great potential in application of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), wind power and marine propulsion. In this paper, an axial magnetic-field-modulated brushless double rotor machine (MFM-BDRM), which can realize the speed decoupling between the shaft of the modulating ring rotor and that of the permanent magnet rotor is proposed. Without brushes and slip rings, the axial MFM-BDRM offers significant advantages such as excellent reliability and high efficiency. Since the number of pole pairs of the stator is not equal to that of the permanent magnet rotor, which differs from the traditional permanent magnet synchronous machine, the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM is deduced. The relations of corresponding speed and toque transmission are analytically discussed. The cogging toque characteristics, especially the order of the cogging torque are mathematically formulated. Matching principle of the number of pole pairs of the stator, that of the permanent magnet rotor and the number of ferromagnetic pole pieces is inferred since it affects MFM-BDRM’s performance greatly, especially in the respect of the cogging torque and electromagnetic torque ripple. The above analyses are assessed with the three-dimensional (3D) finite-element method (FEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)

Review

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Open AccessReview Towards a Friendly Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Pollution, Battery and Drivability
Energies 2014, 7(9), 6013-6030; doi:10.3390/en7096013
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper proposes a generic methodology to incorporate constraints (pollutant emission, battery health, drivability) into on-line energy management strategies (EMSs) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The integration of each constraint into the EMS, made with the Pontryagin
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The paper proposes a generic methodology to incorporate constraints (pollutant emission, battery health, drivability) into on-line energy management strategies (EMSs) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The integration of each constraint into the EMS, made with the Pontryagin maximum principle, shows a tradeoff between the fuel consumption and the constraint introduced. As state dynamics come into play (catalyst temperature, battery cell temperature, etc.), the optimization problem becomes more complex. Simulation results are presented to highlight the contribution of this generic strategy, including constraints compared to the standard approach. These results show that it is possible to find an energy management strategy that takes into account an increasing number of constraints (drivability, pollution, aging, environment, etc.). However, taking these constraints into account increases fuel consumption (the existence of a trade-off curve). This trade-off can be sometimes difficult to find, and the tools developed in this paper should help to find an acceptable solution quickly Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessReview Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives
Energies 2014, 7(6), 3512-3536; doi:10.3390/en7063512
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better
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The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)

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