Energies 2014, 7(1), 99-114; doi:10.3390/en7010099
Article

Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors

Received: 26 November 2013; in revised form: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs). This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC) motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC) is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.
Keywords: energy recovery; regenerative braking; sliding mode control; electric vehicle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Long, B.; Lim, S.T.; Ryu, J.H.; Chong, K.T. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors. Energies 2014, 7, 99-114.

AMA Style

Long B, Lim ST, Ryu JH, Chong KT. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors. Energies. 2014; 7(1):99-114.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Long, Bo; Lim, Shin T.; Ryu, Ji H.; Chong, Kil T. 2014. "Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors." Energies 7, no. 1: 99-114.

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