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Energies 2014, 7(7), 4300-4315; doi:10.3390/en7074300
Article

Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

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Received: 27 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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Abstract

Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1) Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2) how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs) and prolong the service life of batteries; (3) how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs), have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS). The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP). Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach.
Keywords: electric vehicle; H control; ultra-capacitor; hybrid power supply system; energy management electric vehicle; H control; ultra-capacitor; hybrid power supply system; energy management
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Long, B.; Lim, S.T.; Bai, Z.F.; Ryu, J.H.; Chong, K.T. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation. Energies 2014, 7, 4300-4315.

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