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Energies 2014, 7(2), 834-856; doi:10.3390/en7020834

Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

* ,
Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
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This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP) and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC) reaches its boundaries.
Keywords: HEV; energy management; convex optimization HEV; energy management; convex optimization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nüesch, T.; Elbert, P.; Flankl, M.; Onder, C.; Guzzella, L. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs. Energies 2014, 7, 834-856.

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