Energies 2014, 7(7), 4554-4570; doi:10.3390/en7074554
Article

Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs

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Received: 16 April 2014; in revised form: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is currently only partially considered by the European regulation to foster the diffusion of pHEVs. Therefore, this paper aims to assess, through numerical simulation, the real performance of a test case pHEV, the energy management system (EMS) of which is targeted to the minimization of its overall CO2 emissions. The paper highlights, at the same time, the relevance of the CO2 production related to the battery recharge from the power grid. Different technologies mixes used to produce the electricity required for the battery recharge are also taken into account in order to assess the influence of this parameter on the vehicle CO2 emissions. Finally, since the operating cost still represents the main driver in orienting the customer’s choice, an alternative approach for the EMS, targeted to the minimization of this variable, is also analyzed.
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (pHEV); CO2 emissions; energy cost; real world driving cycles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Millo, F.; Rolando, L.; Fuso, R. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs. Energies 2014, 7, 4554-4570.

AMA Style

Millo F, Rolando L, Fuso R. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs. Energies. 2014; 7(7):4554-4570.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Millo, Federico; Rolando, Luciano; Fuso, Rocco. 2014. "Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO2 Emissions and Operating Costs." Energies 7, no. 7: 4554-4570.

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