Energies 2014, 7(3), 1733-1749; doi:10.3390/en7031733
Article

Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050

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Received: 8 January 2014; in revised form: 8 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV) penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector and provide the demand side flexibility required by smart grids. On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. In order to quantify the electricity consumption increase due to the 100% EV penetration in the Nordic region to facilitate the power system planning studies, the day-ahead energy planning of EVs has been investigated with different EV charging scenarios. Five EV charging scenarios have been considered in the energy planning analysis which are: uncontrolled charging all day, uncontrolled charging at home, timed charging, spot price based charging all day and spot price based charging at home. The demand profiles of the five charging analysis show that timed charging is the least favorable charging option and the spot priced based EV charging might induce high peak demands. The EV charging demand will have a considerable share of the energy consumption in the future Nordic power system.
Keywords: day-ahead energy planning; electric vehicle (EV); spot price based charging; timed charging; uncontrolled charging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Wu, Q.; Nielsen, A.H.; Wang, Y. Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050. Energies 2014, 7, 1733-1749.

AMA Style

Liu Z, Wu Q, Nielsen AH, Wang Y. Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050. Energies. 2014; 7(3):1733-1749.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne H.; Wang, Yun. 2014. "Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050." Energies 7, no. 3: 1733-1749.

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