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Beverages, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Known and Emerging Mycotoxins in Small- and Large-Scale Brewed Beer
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (STC), and citrinin (CIT) was evaluated in samples of small- (SS) and large-scale (LS) brewed beer. The analyses were conducted using HPLC-FLD for OTA, GC-MS for DON, and LC-MS/MS for STC and CIT. During
[...] Read more.
The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (STC), and citrinin (CIT) was evaluated in samples of small- (SS) and large-scale (LS) brewed beer. The analyses were conducted using HPLC-FLD for OTA, GC-MS for DON, and LC-MS/MS for STC and CIT. During 2017, a total of 83 samples of SS and LS brewed beer (42 and 41, respectively) were sampled; for both types of beer, the most sold beers in Italy were collected. CIT was never detected in any sample, whereas OTA, DON, and STC prevalence was 45.8%, 25.3%, and 27.7%, respectively. The mean and maximum values for OTA, DON, and STC were 0.007 and 0.070; 8.6 and 99; 0.001 and 0.018 µg/kg, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the SS and LS beers. The results of this survey showed a low contamination; the levels found should not represent a serious risk for consumers’ health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessCommunication Discrimination of Juice Press Fractions for Sparkling Base Wines by a UV-Vis Spectral Phenolic Fingerprint and Chemometrics
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
The feasibility of an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectral phenolic fingerprint (SPF), combined with principal component analysis (PCA), is evaluated as a rapid, simple, and reliable technique for the discrimination of grape juice press fractions destined for the production of sparkling white wines. Juice press
[...] Read more.
The feasibility of an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectral phenolic fingerprint (SPF), combined with principal component analysis (PCA), is evaluated as a rapid, simple, and reliable technique for the discrimination of grape juice press fractions destined for the production of sparkling white wines. Juice press fractions of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay and Pinot noir grapes comprising free-run (i.e., juice released during the loading of press), cuvée (i.e., first press fraction), and taille (i.e., subsequent press fraction), were analyzed by SPF combined with multivariate data analysis. Two trials were carried out, a laboratory and a commercial scale trial. In both trials, cuvée and taille of Chardonnay and Pinot noir grapes were clearly separated in their corresponding PCA plots based on their SPF. The proposed method enables a rapid and objective discrimination of juice press fractions, which can be obtained using relatively inexpensive UV-Vis spectrophotometric equipment. Insights arising from this research suggest a future possibility of objective, real-time discrimination of juice quality that could liberate the winemaker from tasting juice at the press. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sparkling Wine)
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Open AccessArticle The Development of a Menthol Solution for Use during Sport and Exercise
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Menthol mouth-swilling has been shown to improve performance across differing exercise modalities, yet no work has been conducted to ascertain the preferred concentration of menthol within a swill. Colour has also been shown to influence psychophysiological outcomes, and may influence the efficacy of
[...] Read more.
Menthol mouth-swilling has been shown to improve performance across differing exercise modalities, yet no work has been conducted to ascertain the preferred concentration of menthol within a swill. Colour has also been shown to influence psychophysiological outcomes, and may influence the efficacy of ergogenic aids. We conducted two experiments: one to ascertain preferred menthol concentration (0.005–0.105% menthol), the second to assess colour preference (Light Blue, Dark Blue, Light Green, Dark Green, Red). Participants rated swills for Smell, Taste, Freshness, Mouth Feel and Irritation (plus Appearance in the second trial) via 15 cm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), having swilled and expectorated 25 mL of fluid. Both trials employed a crossover design, with tasting order assigned by Latin squares. Differences were assessed for statistical significance (p < 0.05) using one-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Standardised mean differences ±90% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the magnitude of any observed differences. No significant differences were found between concentrations for total VAS score, but higher concentrations demonstrated a greater number of small effects. Similarly, no significant differences between colours were found. Small effects were found when Light Green was compared to Dark Green and Red. Effects were trivial when Light Green was compared to Light Blue (0.05 ± 0.20) and Dark Blue (0.19 ± 0.32). We recommend athletes employ a Light Green or Light Blue 0.1% menthol mouth-swill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of AFB1 and AFM1 in Milk Samples by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Milk is the world’s most consumed beverage, not counting water. Even though investigations on milk aflatoxin (AF) M1 contamination are regularly conducted, there is limited information on the contamination of milk with its parent compound, AFB1. Hence, the aim of this study was
[...] Read more.
Milk is the world’s most consumed beverage, not counting water. Even though investigations on milk aflatoxin (AF) M1 contamination are regularly conducted, there is limited information on the contamination of milk with its parent compound, AFB1. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based method for the simultaneous analysis of AFB1 and AFM1 in milk, using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The recoveries were in a range of 75–96% at 0.005, 0.01, and 0.05 µg/L spiking levels, with repeatability and reproducibility results expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7% and 16%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.001 and 0.002 µg/L for AFM1 and AFB1, respectively. The LODs and LOQs that were obtained showed the suitability of the developed method for the determination of trace amounts of the selected mycotoxins in milk samples, and were up to ten times lower than those that had been reported in previous works using triple quadrupole mass analyzers. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantification. The validated method was applied to 40 Italian milk samples. Neither AFB1 nor AFM1 were found above the LOD in any of the analyzed samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS) Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS) beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase) Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C) and
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS) beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase) Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C) and room temperature (RT: 27 ± 2 °C) were evaluated for 90 days for microbial, sensorial and physicochemical quality parameters. The stability of RTS beverage stored at LT (4 ± 1 °C) was excellent with a retention of the primary quality attributes ascorbic acid (15.44 mg/100 mL), total phenolic content (15.50 mg GAE/100 mL), total carotene (1.07 mg/100 mL), β-carotene (0.78 mg/100 mL), high viscosity (30.29 cp), and with high sensory scores of the product (8.3) up to 90 days as compared to the overall acceptability (6.5) of RT stored RTS for 60 days. Additionally, both the LT and RT stored RTS beverages had microbial counts within the permissible limits. Therefore, both beverages were safe to consume at the end of storage duration. In conclusion, the RTS beverage developed from Cape gooseberry could be served as functional health drink alternative to synthetic soft drinks due to its unique features (high nutritive values, high organoleptic values and high stability) of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Open AccessArticle The Quality of Mulberry Juice as Affected by Enzyme Treatments
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of commercial enzymes on the extraction yield and the quality of mulberry juice. A mulberry mash was separately treated with two enzymes, namely Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Viscozyme L for different incubation times from 60
[...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of commercial enzymes on the extraction yield and the quality of mulberry juice. A mulberry mash was separately treated with two enzymes, namely Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Viscozyme L for different incubation times from 60 to 240 min. Determination of juice yield, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity, l-ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity of juice were carried out. Overall, in comparison with the non-enzymatic treated juice, the juice incubated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Viscozyme L was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in all quality attributes. Moreover, samples incubated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L for 120 min had the highest results in extraction yield (87.1%), total soluble solids (11.9°Bx), titratable acidity (1.4%), l-ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg/100 mL), total phenolic content (160.6 mg GAE/100 mL), and antioxidant capacity (82.6%). For both enzymatic treatments, a prolongation of incubation period from 60 min to 120 min resulted in higher antioxidant values for the juice; however, longer 180 min, they were reduced, except total anthocyanin content. Two-way analysis showed that the impacts of the types of enzyme and treatment duration cannot be separated. Positive correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity indicated that phenolic compounds were the main antioxidants in the beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes in Beverages Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates in Raw Milk, Heated Milk and Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Beverage, in Ghana
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive food-borne pathogen that causes listeriosis in humans. Currently, there is little information on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk and traditional yoghurt-like milk beverage, nunu, in Ghana. The purpose of this study was to investigate the
[...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive food-borne pathogen that causes listeriosis in humans. Currently, there is little information on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk and traditional yoghurt-like milk beverage, nunu, in Ghana. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes isolates in raw cow milk, boiled milk and nunu in Ghana, and to characterize these L. monocytogenes isolates according to their serogroups, virulence potentials and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. A total of 254 samples comprising 114 raw cow milk, 56 boiled milk and 84 nunu were collected from dairy farms and market vendors for detection of L. monocytogenes. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk, boiled milk and nunu was 5.5% (14/254). Listeria monocytogenes was prevalent in raw cow milk (8.8%; 10/114) and nunu (13.1%; 11/84), while no Listeria spp. was not detected in boiled milk. A total of 62 L. monocytogenes isolates were analysed to belong to molecular serogroups 1/2a-3a (32/62, 51.6%), 1/2b-3b-7 (14/62, 22.6%), 4b-4d-4e (9/62, 14.5%) and 1/2c-3c (7/62, 11.3%). All 62 L. monocytogenes isolates harbored the virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, plcA, actA, hlyA, iap and prfA. All Listeria monocytogenes in the present study were generally susceptible to the tested antibiotics, except neomycin and tetracycline, for which phenotypic resistance was observed among isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Preventing and Mitigating Alcohol Toxicity: A Review on Protective Substances
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
This review covers three fundamental aspects of alcohol consumption and research efforts around the prevention and mitigation of its toxic effects in the human body. First, the sociocultural aspects of alcohol consumption are analysed, including drinking habits and strategies to combat intoxication. Second,
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This review covers three fundamental aspects of alcohol consumption and research efforts around the prevention and mitigation of its toxic effects in the human body. First, the sociocultural aspects of alcohol consumption are analysed, including drinking habits and strategies to combat intoxication. Second, we briefly introduce the biochemical aspects of ethanol metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to its degradation, particularly the activation of toxic response pathways. Finally, we review current evidence and research efforts for finding compounds and substances able to prevent and mitigate the toxic effects of alcohol when over-indulgence has occurred. The toxic effects appear as a time-evolution process based on the stage of intoxication. We explore different compounds and formulations traditionally used to combat alcohol toxicity, as well as state-of-the-art research in the topic for novel molecules and formulations. Although we aimed to categorise which compounds are more effective for a particular level of alcohol intoxication, it is impossible to fully prevent or mitigate toxicity effects by only the compounds in isolation, further research is required to establish the long-term prevention and mitigation from the clinical point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Dietary Soursop Milkshake
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Soursop is an unexploited fruit with numerous health benefits. Its underutilization is attributable to its rapid softening and ripening, which leads to great postharvest loss. The current study was carried out to formulate a functional drink from blends of soursop, milk and honey
[...] Read more.
Soursop is an unexploited fruit with numerous health benefits. Its underutilization is attributable to its rapid softening and ripening, which leads to great postharvest loss. The current study was carried out to formulate a functional drink from blends of soursop, milk and honey and also to assess the phytoconstituents of the beverages. The proximate composition, physicochemical, antioxidant, sensory and microbial properties of the formulated drink were evaluated. The formulated milkshake exhibited a significant ascorbic acid content which was above 50% of the recommended daily requirement for both adult and children. The soursop fresh extract (SFE) showed high antioxidant activity which qualifies it as a functional drink. The incorporation of milk to the soursop drink also produced a high flavonoid content and antioxidant properties (DPPH scavenging activity). The soursop fresh extract and drink with 30% milk inclusion had high sensory acceptability and showed no significant difference to the market sample (control). The richness in ascorbic acid, high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the formulated drink suggests it may be an important source of antioxidants and could be used as a functional drink for mediation in health-related issues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutraceutic Characteristics of the Extracts and Juice of Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.) Fruits
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz] are a non-traditional vegetable widely consumed in Latin America, with the state of Veracruz, México being the world’s main producer, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical
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Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz] are a non-traditional vegetable widely consumed in Latin America, with the state of Veracruz, México being the world’s main producer, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical compositions and antioxidant activities from the juice fruits from two commercial varieties of chayote cultivated in Mexico, as well as a proposal for the elaboration of chayote juices with stevia leaves and pineapple juice. The physicochemical properties of juice from virens levis (VL) and nigrum spinosum (NS) varieties were determined using standard methods. The juice of the two varieties differ significantly regarding the concentrations of total soluble solids and total sugars, but not vitamin C. The total concentration of phenolics in NS extracts was slightly higher than in VL (1005 and 856 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively), but the total flavonoid contents were similar (27 and 26 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively). Cucurbitacin D was predominant in both varieties. The radical scavenging capacities of VL and NS extracts varied slightly (IC50 = 0.45 to 0.65 mg mL−1), while the antioxidant activities were similar (~80%). The NS variety is particularly promising regarding nutraceutical application. The chayote juice combined with stevia and pineapple maintained the original nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit, but enhanced the organoleptic characteristics like density and sugar/acidity balance. Full article
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Open AccessReview Microbial and Chemical Diversity of Traditional Non-Cereal Based Alcoholic Beverages of Sub-Saharan Africa
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Fermentation remains an important food preparation technique of health, cultural and economic importance throughout the world. In Sub-Saharan Africa, traditional alcoholic fermentation of cereal and non-cereal based substrates into alcoholic beverages is deeply rooted in the society. Although a multitude of traditional alcoholic
[...] Read more.
Fermentation remains an important food preparation technique of health, cultural and economic importance throughout the world. In Sub-Saharan Africa, traditional alcoholic fermentation of cereal and non-cereal based substrates into alcoholic beverages is deeply rooted in the society. Although a multitude of traditional alcoholic beverages from cereal substrates are well researched and documented, their non-cereal based counterparts, mostly produced from indigenous, inexpensive substrates, remain less well studied. In addition, reports of health problems associated with non-cereal based alcoholic beverages produced from spontaneous fermentation are a major cause of concern. This review aims to highlight the microbiological and chemical profiles of these non-cereal based alcoholic beverages with a focus on the Sub-Saharan region. Here, we underscore the importance of the microbial repertoire and the substrates thereof in attaining aromatic complexity and a characteristic taste in these beverages. These aspects are an important starting point towards the potential commercialization of these complex aromatic non-cereal based traditional beverages. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
In this current special issue, different aspects related to phenolic compounds in fruit beverages
are presented.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone) in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL). This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Potential Safety Issues Surrounding the Use of Benzoate Preservatives
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Sodium benzoate (E211) and potassium sorbate (E202) have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause
[...] Read more.
Sodium benzoate (E211) and potassium sorbate (E202) have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause drinks to contain traces of the carcinogen benzene. This benzene is thought to have its origins in a free-radical catalysed reaction of the benzoate with ascorbic acid. However, there may be additional benefits to using potassium sorbate rather than the benzoate preservatives in beverages. In children, a high dietary intake of sodium benzoate may be associated with asthma, allergy, or attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Benzoate is now known to influence cognitive functioning. By acting as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), thereby reducing the DAAO-catalysed degradation of D-serine, it can upregulate the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the brain. A high benzoate intake might also generate glycine deficiency, lack of glycine generally exerting a negative impact on brain neurochemistry. There are therefore strong grounds for suspecting that dietary benzoate can have neuromodulatory (mood, learning, and personality) effects and influence child hyperactivity disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverages Additives)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Two Decades of “Horse Sweat” Taint and Brettanomyces Yeasts in Wine: Where do We Stand Now?
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
The unwanted modification of wine sensory attributes by yeasts of the species Brettanomyces bruxellensis due to the production of volatile phenols is presently the main microbiological threat to red wine quality. The effects of ethylphenols and other metabolites on wine flavor is now
[...] Read more.
The unwanted modification of wine sensory attributes by yeasts of the species Brettanomyces bruxellensis due to the production of volatile phenols is presently the main microbiological threat to red wine quality. The effects of ethylphenols and other metabolites on wine flavor is now recognized worldwide and the object of lively debate. The focus of this review is to provide an update of the present knowledge and practice on the prevention of this problem in the wine industry. Brettanomyces bruxellensis, or its teleomorph, Dekkera bruxellensis, are rarely found in the natural environment and, although frequently isolated from fermenting substrates, their numbers are relatively low when compared with other fermenting species. Despite this rarity, they have long been studied for their unusual metabolical features (e.g., the Custers effect). Rising interest over the last decades is mostly due to volatile phenol production affecting high quality red wines worldwide. The challenges have been dealt with together by researchers and winemakers in an effective way and this has enabled a state where, presently, knowledge and prevention of the problem at the winery level is readily accessible. Today, the main issues have shifted from technological to sensory science concerning the effects of metabolites other than ethylphenols and the over estimation of the detrimental impact by ethylphenols on flavor. Hopefully, these questions will continue to be tackled together by science and industry for the benefit of wine enjoyment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Soil Erosion as an Environmental Concern in Vineyards: The Case Study of Celler del Roure, Eastern Spain, by Means of Rainfall Simulation Experiments
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Soil erosion in vineyards is considered as an environmental concern as it depletes soil fertility and causes damage in the fields and downstream. High soil and water losses decrease soil quality, and subsequently, this can reduce the quality of the grapes and wine.
[...] Read more.
Soil erosion in vineyards is considered as an environmental concern as it depletes soil fertility and causes damage in the fields and downstream. High soil and water losses decrease soil quality, and subsequently, this can reduce the quality of the grapes and wine. However, in specialized journals of viticulture and enology, soil erosion studies are not present. This paper surveys the soil erosion losses in the vineyards of Celler del Roure, Eastern Spain, as an example of Mediterranean vineyards. We applied rainfall simulation experiments (10 plots) using a small portable rainfall simulator and 55 mm h−1 in one hour to characterize soil erodibility, runoff discharge, and soil erosion rates under low-frequency–high-magnitude rainfall events at different positions along the vine inter-row areas. We found that 30% of the rainfall was transformed into superficial runoff, the sediment concentration was 23 g L−1, and the soil erosion rates reached 4.1 Mg ha−1 h−1; these erosion rates are among the highest found in the existing literature. We suggest that the vineyard management should be improved to reduce land degradation, and also should be shifted to sustainable agricultural production, which could improve grape and wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viticulture for Wine Production)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of an In Vitro Digestion on the Antioxidant Capacity of a Microfiltrated Blackberry Juice (Rubus adenotrichos)
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
The health benefits attributed to berries are largely dependent on their bioavailability. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity for different samples of blackberry juice submitted to an in vitro digestion. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that gastric conditions had only a slight impact on
[...] Read more.
The health benefits attributed to berries are largely dependent on their bioavailability. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity for different samples of blackberry juice submitted to an in vitro digestion. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that gastric conditions had only a slight impact on the phenolic composition, but the digestion simulating intestine conditions caused marked changes. The dialyzed fraction, which represents the serum available material, showed 33% and 35% less activity against nitrogen-derived radicals and a significant reduction of 46% in the inhibitory capacity against intracellular ROS. Other models used to evaluate the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation did not show significant differences in any of the digestion samples. Our results suggest that blackberry polyphenols could exert their antioxidant capacity after passage through the GIT. However, the dialyzed fraction suffers a partial depletion of its antioxidant ability, this could be attributed to the absence of ellagitannins. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Feasibility of a Novel Industrial-Scale Treatment of Green Cold-Pressed Juices by UV-C Light Exposure
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
A novel industrial-scale ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light processor from AseptoRay (MGT, Israel) was used to treat a raw cold-pressed green juice blend (GJB) consisting of kale, romaine, celery, apple, and lemon. The effect of UV-C light energies of 0.88 kJ L−1 and 2.93
[...] Read more.
A novel industrial-scale ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light processor from AseptoRay (MGT, Israel) was used to treat a raw cold-pressed green juice blend (GJB) consisting of kale, romaine, celery, apple, and lemon. The effect of UV-C light energies of 0.88 kJ L−1 and 2.93 kJ L−1 on microbial, enzymatic, nutritional, quality, and sensory parameters of the GJB was studied. Using 2.93 kJ L−1, 3.7 log reduction in aciduric bacteria and 3.9 logs in aerobic colony count were achieved, while lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, yeasts, and moulds were reduced by >3, >2, 2.1, and 2.1 logs, respectively. A minor increase in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme activity was seen with 0.88 kJ L−1 and a slight change in colour (not visually observed) was detected using 2.93 kJ L−1. No other significant change in nutritional and quality parameters or enzyme activities was detected. Further, the stability of the GJB was explored. Kale and romaine contributed the most significant source of spoilage enzyme activity, cloud loss, and browning in the GJB. These stability parameters were shown to be affected by pressing temperature and pH. The commercial UV-C treatment process explored in this study is a viable alternative to high pressure processing (HPP) for improved microbial safety of fresh green juice blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for Pasteurisation/Sterilization of Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Temporal Profiles among Sucrose, Sucralose, and Acesulfame Potassium after Swallowing Sweetened Coffee Beverages and Sweetened Water Solutions
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
Non-nutritive sweeteners have been used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners with the goal of preventing obesity and dental caries. The main factor responsible for the difference in taste between beverages containing a nutritive sweetener and those containing a non-nutritive sweetener is the temporal
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Non-nutritive sweeteners have been used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners with the goal of preventing obesity and dental caries. The main factor responsible for the difference in taste between beverages containing a nutritive sweetener and those containing a non-nutritive sweetener is the temporal profile of sensory attributes. In this study, untrained panelists performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness, using one coffee beverage containing a nutritive sweetener (sucrose) and two coffee beverages containing non-nutritive sweeteners (sucralose or acesulfame potassium (acesulfame K)). They evaluated continuously perceived intensity of sweetness for 150 s after swallowing each coffee beverage. We did not detect a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three coffee beverages. To investigate why the temporal profiles of the three coffee beverages followed similar traces, all untrained participants who had participated in the coffee beverage session also performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness using three water solutions (sucrose-sweetened, sucralose-sweetened, and acesulfame K–sweetened deionized water). We observed a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three water solutions. These results indicate that differences in the temporal profiles of coffee beverages might be masked by factors other than the sweetness of the sweetener. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessTechnical Note Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Added at the Dosage Stage on the Foamability of a Bottle-Fermented Sparkling Wine
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in winemaking to prevent potassium bitartrate or potassium hydrogen tartrate deposits from forming. These deposits are particularly detrimental when occurring in bottle-fermented sparkling wine ahead of disgorging or in the finished product as they can cause gushing of
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Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in winemaking to prevent potassium bitartrate or potassium hydrogen tartrate deposits from forming. These deposits are particularly detrimental when occurring in bottle-fermented sparkling wine ahead of disgorging or in the finished product as they can cause gushing of the wine when bottles are opened. Despite CMC being used by several sparkling winemaking producers both on the base wine and after disgorging, its effect on the behavior of foam, a key indicator of sparkling wine quality, has not been systematically tested. In this work the effect on wine composition and foam attributes of CMC additions to an English sparkling wine at the dosage stage was assessed. Results showed that CMC did not cause major changes on wine parameters, with the exception of wine viscosity, and did not result in major modification of the foamability of a wine, especially when analyzed in real serving conditions. These results suggest that, at least for the wine analyzed in this work, CMC could be added at the dosage stage without compromising its foam quality attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverages Additives)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Method for the Identification of the Variety of Grape Using Their Capability to Form Gold Nanoparticles
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been obtained using musts (freshly prepared grape juices where solid peels and seeds have been removed) as the reducing and capping agent. Transmission Electron Microscope images show that the formed AuNPs are spherical and their size increases with the
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been obtained using musts (freshly prepared grape juices where solid peels and seeds have been removed) as the reducing and capping agent. Transmission Electron Microscope images show that the formed AuNPs are spherical and their size increases with the amount of must used. The size of the AuNPs increases with the Total Polyphenol Index (TPI) of the variety of grape. The kinetics of the reaction monitored using UV-Vis shows that the reaction rates are related to the chemical composition of the musts and specifically to the phenols that can act as reducing and capping agents during the synthesis process. Since the particular composition of each must produces AuNPs of different sizes and at different rates, color changes can be used to discriminate the variety of grape. This new technology can be used to avoid fraud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: The Microscience of the Beverage Industry
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and
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Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and must remain physically stable for long periods of time. Nowadays, the consumers ask for more than a drink. Thus, in the market, we can find a vast variety of beverages, where emulsion science seems to be the main factor for controlling flavor, color, the presence of constituents of technological or nutritional value, nutraceutical/bioactive components and, also, turbidity. This work intends to make an overview of the recent advances in beverage-emulsions technology. Some examples are given within the very large world of the beverage industry, from cream liqueurs, soft drinks, and functional beverages, to bottled water, fruit drinks, sparkling wine, and beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Emulsions)
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