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Beverages 2018, 4(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4020034

Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk

Department of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea 1, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
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Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Abstract

Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone) in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL). This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; evaporated milk; Peru; LC–MS/MS; validation; food analysis; beverages mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; evaporated milk; Peru; LC–MS/MS; validation; food analysis; beverages
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Flores-Flores, M.E.; González-Peñas, E. Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk. Beverages 2018, 4, 34.

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