Special Issue "Mycotoxins in Beverages"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Elena González-Peñas

Department of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: analytical techniques; multidetection; mycotoxins; HPLC-FL; HPLC-MS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi that contaminate food and raw materials. They can severely affect human health after chronic exposure and, thus, their presence at low concentrations is of great concern in food safety. This Special Issue comprises articles or reviews related to the presence of these toxins in beverages, the effects of beverage processing on mycotoxin contamination, the impact of their presence on human health, and analytical methodologies used for their determination in beverages. Due to the fact that co-occurrence of mycotoxins in a food is the most likely scenario, manuscripts devoted to this aspect are especially welcome.

Prof. Dr. Elena González-Peñas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Known and Emerging Mycotoxins in Small- and Large-Scale Brewed Beer
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (STC), and citrinin (CIT) was evaluated in samples of small- (SS) and large-scale (LS) brewed beer. The analyses were conducted using HPLC-FLD for OTA, GC-MS for DON, and LC-MS/MS for STC and CIT. During
[...] Read more.
The occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (STC), and citrinin (CIT) was evaluated in samples of small- (SS) and large-scale (LS) brewed beer. The analyses were conducted using HPLC-FLD for OTA, GC-MS for DON, and LC-MS/MS for STC and CIT. During 2017, a total of 83 samples of SS and LS brewed beer (42 and 41, respectively) were sampled; for both types of beer, the most sold beers in Italy were collected. CIT was never detected in any sample, whereas OTA, DON, and STC prevalence was 45.8%, 25.3%, and 27.7%, respectively. The mean and maximum values for OTA, DON, and STC were 0.007 and 0.070; 8.6 and 99; 0.001 and 0.018 µg/kg, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the SS and LS beers. The results of this survey showed a low contamination; the levels found should not represent a serious risk for consumers’ health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of AFB1 and AFM1 in Milk Samples by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Milk is the world’s most consumed beverage, not counting water. Even though investigations on milk aflatoxin (AF) M1 contamination are regularly conducted, there is limited information on the contamination of milk with its parent compound, AFB1. Hence, the aim of this study was
[...] Read more.
Milk is the world’s most consumed beverage, not counting water. Even though investigations on milk aflatoxin (AF) M1 contamination are regularly conducted, there is limited information on the contamination of milk with its parent compound, AFB1. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based method for the simultaneous analysis of AFB1 and AFM1 in milk, using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The recoveries were in a range of 75–96% at 0.005, 0.01, and 0.05 µg/L spiking levels, with repeatability and reproducibility results expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7% and 16%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were 0.001 and 0.002 µg/L for AFM1 and AFB1, respectively. The LODs and LOQs that were obtained showed the suitability of the developed method for the determination of trace amounts of the selected mycotoxins in milk samples, and were up to ten times lower than those that had been reported in previous works using triple quadrupole mass analyzers. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantification. The validated method was applied to 40 Italian milk samples. Neither AFB1 nor AFM1 were found above the LOD in any of the analyzed samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone) in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL). This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Biosensor-Based Approaches for Detecting Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Beverages
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium.
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin A exhibits nephrotic effects and can, potentially, be associated with human carcinogenesis, whereas 2,4,6-trichloanisole is primarily responsible for cork taint in wines. This review provides an overview of recent advances in biosensor technology for the determination of the aforementioned compounds in wine, beer and other beverages, as well as cork stoppers, which help in establishing and carrying out proper product quality-management strategies. Such a detailed investigation of biosensor-based detection methods of these toxic compounds in beverages could lead to the provision of safe-to-consume products, and allow the prioritization of future research efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Wine Contamination with Ochratoxins: A Review
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the main mycotoxin occurring in wine. This review article is focused on the distribution of this toxin and its producing-fungi in grape berries, as well as on the fate of OTA during winemaking procedures. Due to its toxic properties,
[...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the main mycotoxin occurring in wine. This review article is focused on the distribution of this toxin and its producing-fungi in grape berries, as well as on the fate of OTA during winemaking procedures. Due to its toxic properties, OTA levels in wine are regulated in different countries; therefore, it is necessary to apply control and detoxification methods that are also discussed in this revision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Mycotoxin Contamination of Beverages Derived from Tropical Crops: the Case of Latin American products

Authors: Mauricio Redondo-Solano 1, Daniela Jaikel-Víquez 2 and Fabio Granados-Chinchilla 3

Affiliation:
1 Sección de Mirobiología de Alimentos, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica
2 Sección de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica 
3 Centro de Investigación en Nutrición Animal, Universidad de Costa Rica

Abstract: This review will mainly focus on beverages found in tropical regions, including coffee, tea, cocoa, nut milk and those prepared from fruits. After considering the epidemiological data found in the above matrices, the focus will be on recent methodological approaches to assessing said mycotoxins. The singularities of the mycotoxins and the beverages in which they are found will be considered. The economic effects and repercussions that the use of mycotoxin-tainted ingredients has on the beverage industry will also be highlighted. The burden of mycotoxin consumption through beverages, including risks and health effects on humans, will also be addressed.

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