Special Issue "Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. António Manuel Jordão

1. Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (CI&DETS), Agrarian Higher School—Department of Food Industries, Quinta da Alagoa - Estrada de Nelas 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal
2. CQ-VR, Chemistry Research Centre, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
E-Mail
Interests: wine; grapes; phenolic compounds; enology; winemaking; wine aging process

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phenolic compounds, also called polyphenols, constitute a diverse group of secondary metabolites that exist in plants and their fruits. This important group of compounds contributes to organoleptic characteristics, such as color, taste, astringency and bitterness of fruit beverages. In addition, these compounds have gained considerable interest due to research suggesting their many health benefits especially as antioxidants.

Thus, the objective of this Special Issue is to publish a compilation of original research and review papers that cover different aspects of phenolic compounds in fruit beverages, such as fruit composition, varieties and factors that could affect their phenolic composition, analytical methods for phenolic identification and quantification, impact of fruit beverages technologies on phenolics, role of phenolics in the sensorial analysis of fruit beverages and the biological activities and the health benefits of fruit beverages polyphenolics.

Prof. Dr. António Manuel Jordão
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.



Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
In this current special issue, different aspects related to phenolic compounds in fruit beverages
are presented.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle Characterization of an Antioxidant-Enriched Beverage from Grape Musts and Extracts of Winery and Grapevine By-Products
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional
[...] Read more.
The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional antioxidant compounds. The objective of this study was to find a novel functionality for grape pomace, grapevine leaves, and canes by its reuse as a functional matrix for the extraction of antioxidants into grape must. After thermomaceration, 22 polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Grape pomace was a good source of anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside), while flavonols (quercetin-3-hexoside) and phenolic acids (caftaric acid) were the main phenolic compounds in leaf extracts. Catechin dimer was the only polyphenol compound present in all of the matrices. Enriched grape juice comprised by 40:20:40 (v/v/v) of pomace, leaf, and cane extracts, yielded an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of pirogallol red and fluorescein ratio of 0.70, indicating that the reactivity of antioxidants present in enriched grape juice was at least as efficient as other polyphenol-rich beverages. Thus, pomace, leaves and canes supply additional polyphenols to grape must that results into a beverage with promissory antioxidant activity and potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle LC–MS/MS and UPLC–UV Evaluation of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanidins during Rabbiteye Blueberry Juice Processing
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor
[...] Read more.
Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor anthocyanins were identified and semi-quantified at various steps through the process. Ten anthocyanins were identified, including 5 arabinoside and 5 pyrannoside anthocyanins. Three minor anthocyanins were also identified, which apparently have not been previously reported in rabbiteye blueberries. These were delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside), cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside), and petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside). Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside) significantly increased 50% after pressing. The five known anthocyanidins—cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin—were also quantitated using UPLC–UV. Raw berries and press cake contained the highest anthocyanidin contents and contribute to the value and interest of press cake for use in other food and non-food products. Losses of 75.7% after pressing and 12% after pasteurization were determined for anthocyanidins during not-from-concentrate juice processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Stability, Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Beet and Orange Mixed Juice During Refrigerated Storage
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to mix beet juice and orange juice in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 v/v), evaluate their physicochemical stability and antioxidant activity during storage (4 °C for 30 days), and evaluate their acceptance by consumers.
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to mix beet juice and orange juice in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 v/v), evaluate their physicochemical stability and antioxidant activity during storage (4 °C for 30 days), and evaluate their acceptance by consumers. Beet juice (with or without pasteurization) and pasteurized orange juice were used as controls. The presence of orange juice contributed to the pH, betacyanin, betaxanthin, and antioxidant capacity stabilities during storage, whereas the presence of beet improved the color stability. The mixed juices showed high total phenolic compounds (484–485 µg gallic acid/mL), DPPH scavenging capacity (2083–1930 µg Trolox/mL), and ABTS (1854–1840 µg Trolox/mL), as well as better sensory acceptance than the pasteurized beet juice. However, the mixed juices had a more significant reduction in the ascorbic acid content (completely lost at 15 days of storage) than the pasteurized orange juice (25% reduction at 30 days). The beet and orange mixed juice is an alternative functional beverage that can contribute to an increase in the consumption of beet and orange. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Wine Phenolic Compounds: Antimicrobial Properties against Yeasts, Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microorganisms play an important role in the conversion of grape juice into wine. Yeasts belonging the genus Saccharomyces are mainly responsible for the production of ethanol, but members of other genera are known as producers of off-flavors, e.g., volatile phenols. Lactic acid and
[...] Read more.
Microorganisms play an important role in the conversion of grape juice into wine. Yeasts belonging the genus Saccharomyces are mainly responsible for the production of ethanol, but members of other genera are known as producers of off-flavors, e.g., volatile phenols. Lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria also occur regularly in must and wine. They are mostly undesirable due to their capacity to produce wine-spoiling compounds (acetic acid, biogenic amines, N-heterocycles, diacetyl, etc.). In conventional winemaking, additions of sulfite or lysozyme are used to inhibit growth of spoilage microorganisms. However, there is increasing concern about the health risks connected with these enological additives and high interest in finding alternatives. Phenols are naturally occurring compounds in grapes and wine and are well known for their antimicrobial and health-promoting activities. In this study, we tested a selection of phenolic compounds for their effect on growth and viability of wine-associated yeasts and bacteria. Our investigations confirmed the antimicrobial activities of ferulic acid and resveratrol described in previous studies. In addition, we found syringaldehyde highly efficient against wine-spoiling bacteria at concentrations of 250–1000 µg/mL. The promising bioactive activities of this aromatic aldehyde and its potential for winemaking deserves further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemistry of White Wine Polyphenols Using PEDOT Modified Electrodes
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conducting polymer PEDOT (poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has been polymerized onto 3 mm and 10 µm electrodes from a propylene carbonate solution. The electrodes have then been tested in a Chardonnay wine, including dilutions in a model wine solution, with comparisons made to scans with
[...] Read more.
The conducting polymer PEDOT (poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has been polymerized onto 3 mm and 10 µm electrodes from a propylene carbonate solution. The electrodes have then been tested in a Chardonnay wine, including dilutions in a model wine solution, with comparisons made to scans with a glassy carbon electrode. A well-defined oxidation peak was obtained for the white wine at PEDOT in the 400 to 450 mV (Ag/AgCl) range, where peaks were also obtained for the representative phenolics caffeic acid and catechin. The voltammetry at PEDOT was typical of a surface-confined process. Significant preconcentration, leading to an increased current response, was noted over a period of 20 min of holding time. Extensive PEDOT growth was observed in the microelectrode case, leading to current densities for the oxidation of caffeic acid over 1000 times greater than those observed at the macroelectrode, matching the high surface area and fractal-type growth observed in SEM images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Juice Extraction Process and Investigation on Must Fermentation of Overripe Giant Horn Plantains
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study was initiated to optimize the enzymabtic extraction process of plantain pulp using response surface methodology. Weight loss of plantain decreased until it became stable at an over-ripe stage. The significant regression model describing the changes of extraction yield and Brix with
[...] Read more.
The study was initiated to optimize the enzymabtic extraction process of plantain pulp using response surface methodology. Weight loss of plantain decreased until it became stable at an over-ripe stage. The significant regression model describing the changes of extraction yield and Brix with respect to hydrolysis parameters was established. Temperature contributed to reducing the yield from 53.52% down to 49.43%, and the dilution factor increased the yield from 53.52% to 92.97%. On the contrary, the dilution factor significantly reduced Brix from 21.74 °Bx down to 0.15 °Bx, while the enzyme concentration increased Brix from 21.73 °Bx to 26.16 °Bx. The optimum conditions for juice extraction from plantain pulp were: temperature: 25 °C; enzyme concentration: 5%; dilution ratio: 1.10; and extraction time: 24 h. The implementation of these conditions led to (resulted in obtaining) obtaining a must yield of more than 70% and Brix between 10 °Bx and 15 °Bx. The total polyphenols and flavonoids were 7.70 ± 0.99 mg GAE /100 g and 0.4 ± 0.01 µg rutin/g for must and 17.01 ± 0.34 mg GAE/100 g and 4 ± 0.12 µg rutin/g and 7.70 ± 0.99 for wine, indicated the presence of antioxidant activity in the produced wine. On the other hand, the total soluble solids were between 16.06 ± 0.58 °Bx and 1.5 ± 0.10 °Bx, which permitted obtaining a wine with low alcohol content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health.
[...] Read more.
The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances and Applications of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) to Improve Polyphenol Extraction and Color Release during Red Winemaking
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is an innovative food processing system and it has been introduced in relatively recent times as a pre-treatment of liquid and semi-solid food. Low cost-equipment and short processing time, coupled to the effectiveness in assisting the extraction of
[...] Read more.
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is an innovative food processing system and it has been introduced in relatively recent times as a pre-treatment of liquid and semi-solid food. Low cost-equipment and short processing time, coupled to the effectiveness in assisting the extraction of valuable compounds from vegetable tissues, makes PEF a challenging solution for the industrial red winemaking; a tailored PEF-assisted maceration was demonstrated to promote an increase in wine color quality and an improvement in the polyphenolic profile. Despite the application of PEF has been studied and the positive effects in selected wine varieties were demonstrated on batch and pilot-scale systems, there is a need for a more detailed characterization of the impact in different grapes, and for a better understanding of potential undesirable side-effects. This review aims to summarize the state of the art in view of a detailed feasibility study, to promote the introduction of PEF technology in the oenological industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During
[...] Read more.
The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size), the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages) Printed Edition available
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