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Bioengineering, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Bioengineering in 2016
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010002
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
The editors of Bioengineering would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stimulates Extra-Cellular Matrix Production in Cellular Spheroids
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010004
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 21 January 2017
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Abstract
Nanotechnologies have been integrated into drug delivery, and non-invasive imaging applications, into nanostructured scaffolds for the manipulation of cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the physico-chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their spatial distribution into cellular spheroids stimulated
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Nanotechnologies have been integrated into drug delivery, and non-invasive imaging applications, into nanostructured scaffolds for the manipulation of cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the physico-chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their spatial distribution into cellular spheroids stimulated cells to produce an extracellular matrix (ECM). The MNP concentration (0.03 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.3 mg/mL), type (magnetoferritin), shape (nanorod—85 nm × 425 nm) and incorporation method were studied to determine each of their effects on the specific stimulation of four ECM proteins (collagen I, collagen IV, elastin and fibronectin) in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cell. Results demonstrated that as MNP concentration increased there was up to a 6.32-fold increase in collagen production over no MNP samples. Semi-quantitative Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results demonstrated that MNP type had the greatest influence on elastin production with a 56.28% positive area stain compared to controls and MNP shape favored elastin stimulation with a 50.19% positive area stain. Finally, there are no adverse effects of MNPs on cellular contractile ability. This study provides insight on the stimulation of ECM production in cells and tissues, which is important because it plays a critical role in regulating cellular functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Interaction with the Biological Milieu)
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Open AccessArticle Fixation Release and the Bone Bandaid: A New Bone Fixation Device Paradigm
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010005
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
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Abstract
The current gold standard of care for mandibular segmental defeat reconstruction is the use of Ti-6Al-4V immobilization hardware and fibular double barrel graft. This method is often successful immediately at restoring mandible function, however the highly stiff fixation hardware causes stress shielding of
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The current gold standard of care for mandibular segmental defeat reconstruction is the use of Ti-6Al-4V immobilization hardware and fibular double barrel graft. This method is often successful immediately at restoring mandible function, however the highly stiff fixation hardware causes stress shielding of the grafted bone and stress concentration in the fixation device over time which can lead to fixation device failure and revision surgery. The purpose of reconstructive surgery could be to create normal stress trajectories in the mandible following engraftment. We investigate the use of a two stage mechanism which separates the immobilization/healing and regenerative phases of mandibular segmental defect treatment. The device includes the use of a very stiff, Ti-6Al-4V, releasable mechanism which assures bone healing. Therefore it could be released once the reconstructed boney tissue and any of its ligamentous attachments have completely healed. Underneath the released Ti-6Al-4V plate would be a pre-loaded nitinol (NiTi) wire-frame apparatus that facilitates the normal stress-strain trajectory through the engrafted bone after the graft is healed in place and the Ti-6Al-4V fixation device has been released. Due to the use of NiTi wires forming a netting that connects vascularized bone and possibly bone chips, bone grafts are also more likely to be incorporate rather than to resorb. We first evaluated a healthy adult mandible during normal mastication to obtain the normal stress-strain distribution. Then, we developed the finite element (FE) model of the mandibular reconstruction (in the M1-3 region) with the proposed fixation device during the healing (locked state) and post-healing (released state) periods. To recreate normal stress trajectory in the reconstructed mandible, we applied the Response Surface Methodology (RMS) to optimize the Bone Bandaid geometry (i.e., wire diameters and location). The results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism immobilizes the grafted bone in the locked state properly since the maximum resultant gap (21.54 micron) between the graft and host mandible surfaces are in the safe region (less than 300 micron). By considering the von Mises criteria for failure, FE analysis together with experimental studies (i.e., compressive and tensile testing on the inferior and superior fixation devices, respectively) confirm that the proposed fixation devices do not fail, showing safety factor of at least 10.3. Based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique, the optimal parameter values for the wires are achieved (0.65 mm and 1 mm for the superior and inferior wires, respectively) and the required level of preload on each wire are calculated (369.8 N and 229 N for the inferior and superior wires, respectively). The FE results for stress distribution on the reconstructed mandible during the released state closely match that of a healthy mandible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Yeast Surface Display Method for Large-Scale Screen Inhibitors of Sortase A
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010006
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
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Abstract
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates of sortase A are too expensive to be used to roughly screen high-throughput sortase A inhibitors. This makes therapeutic strategies difficult to realize in a clinical therapeutic use. Instead, we design here an LPETG-EGFP (leucine, proline, glutamic, threonine
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Fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates of sortase A are too expensive to be used to roughly screen high-throughput sortase A inhibitors. This makes therapeutic strategies difficult to realize in a clinical therapeutic use. Instead, we design here an LPETG-EGFP (leucine, proline, glutamic, threonine and glycine-enhanced green fluorescence) protein displayed on a yeast surface as a substrate by adaptively reducing the cost. We do this by optimizing the induction conditions of sortase A expression in Escherichia coli DE3(BL21) and catalyzing LPETG proteins, which are displayed on surface of Pichia pastoris. Different expression conditions of sortase A include: induction temperature (22 °C, 28 °C, 37 °C and 40 °C), induction time (4 h, 5 h, 6 h and 7 h) and induction concentration of isopropyl β-d-thiogalactoside IPTG (0.25 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/L, 1 mmol/L, and 2 mmol/L). The fluorescence change of the LPETG-EGFP protein on the surface of P. pastoris over time was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence spectrophotometry, and then the sensitivities of the two methods were compared. Using berberine chloride as an inhibitor, the activity of sortase A was investigated with the substrates of LPETG-EGFP protein, and compared to Dabcyl-QALPETGEE-Edans. A high yield of sortase A was achieved by inducing 1.0 mmol/L IPTG at 28 °C for 6 h. The intensity of green fluorescence of substrates displayed on the yeast surface was increased over time, while the stability was decreased slightly. Both fluorescence spectrophotometery and flow cytometry were fit for detection because of their high sensitivity. We utilized two different substrates of sortase A to investigate sortase A activity, which resulted in the increase of fluorescence intensity with respect to the increased time of growth. However, the method with Dabcyl-QALPETGEE-Edans as its substrate was more robust. Thus, the method described in this paper is a simple and cheap method which is very suitable for high-throughput analysis, but the conventional method is much more sensitive. The method described in this paper is expected to lead to large-scale screening of sortase A inhibitors which can be used to decrease the risk of drug resistance development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle HHV Predicting Correlations for Torrefied Biomass Using Proximate and Ultimate Analyses
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010007
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
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Abstract
Many correlations are available in the literature to predict the higher heating value (HHV) of raw biomass using the proximate and ultimate analyses. Studies on biomass torrefaction are growing tremendously, which suggest that the fuel characteristics, such as HHV, proximate analysis and ultimate
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Many correlations are available in the literature to predict the higher heating value (HHV) of raw biomass using the proximate and ultimate analyses. Studies on biomass torrefaction are growing tremendously, which suggest that the fuel characteristics, such as HHV, proximate analysis and ultimate analysis, have changed significantly after torrefaction. Such changes may cause high estimation errors if the existing HHV correlations were to be used in predicting the HHV of torrefied biomass. No study has been carried out so far to verify this. Therefore, this study seeks answers to the question: “Can the existing correlations be used to determine the HHV of the torrefied biomass”? To answer this, the existing HHV predicting correlations were tested using torrefied biomass data points. Estimation errors were found to be significantly high for the existing HHV correlations, and thus, they are not suitable for predicting the HHV of the torrefied biomass. New correlations were then developed using data points of torrefied biomass. The ranges of reported data for HHV, volatile matter (VM), fixed carbon (FC), ash (ASH), carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) contents were 14.90 MJ/kg–33.30 MJ/kg, 13.30%–88.57%, 11.25%–82.74%, 0.08%–47.62%, 35.08%–86.28%, 0.53%–7.46% and 4.31%–44.70%, respectively. Correlations with the minimum mean absolute errors and having all components of proximate and ultimate analyses were selected for future use. The selected new correlations have a good accuracy of prediction when they are validated using another set of data (26 samples). Thus, these new and more accurate correlations can be useful in modeling different thermochemical processes, including combustion, pyrolysis and gasification processes of torrefied biomass. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multivariate Curve Resolution and Carbon Balance Constraint to Unravel FTIR Spectra from Fed-Batch Fermentation Samples
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010009
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
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Abstract
The current work investigates the capability of a tailored multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm to analyse glucose, phosphate, ammonium and acetate dynamics simultaneously in an E. coli BL21 fed-batch fermentation. The high-cell-density (HCDC) process is monitored by ex situ online attenuated
[...] Read more.
The current work investigates the capability of a tailored multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm to analyse glucose, phosphate, ammonium and acetate dynamics simultaneously in an E. coli BL21 fed-batch fermentation. The high-cell-density (HCDC) process is monitored by ex situ online attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and several in situ online process sensors. This approach efficiently utilises automatically generated process data to reduce the time and cost consuming reference measurement effort for multivariate calibration. To determine metabolite concentrations with accuracies between ±0.19 and ±0.96·gL−l, the presented utilisation needs primarily—besides online sensor measurements—single FTIR measurements for each of the components of interest. The ambiguities in alternating least squares solutions for concentration estimation are reduced by the insertion of analytical process knowledge primarily in the form of elementary carbon mass balances. Thus, in this way, the established idea of mass balance constraints in MCR combines with the consistency check of measured data by carbon balances, as commonly applied in bioprocess engineering. The constraints are calculated based on online process data and theoretical assumptions. This increased calculation effort is able to replace, to a large extent, the need for manually conducted quantitative chemical analysis, leads to good estimations of concentration profiles and a better process understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Modelling and Multi-Parametric Control of Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Photocurable Bioink for the Inkjet 3D Pharming of Hydrophilic Drugs
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010011
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
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Abstract
Novel strategies are required to manufacture customized oral solid dosage forms for personalized medicine applications. 3D Pharming, the direct printing of pharmaceutical tablets, is an attractive strategy, since it allows for the rapid production of solid dosage forms containing custom drug dosages. This
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Novel strategies are required to manufacture customized oral solid dosage forms for personalized medicine applications. 3D Pharming, the direct printing of pharmaceutical tablets, is an attractive strategy, since it allows for the rapid production of solid dosage forms containing custom drug dosages. This study reports on the design and characterization of a biocompatible photocurable pharmaceutical polymer for inkjet 3D printing that is suitable for hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Specifically, hyaluronic acid was functionalized with norbornene moieties that, in the presence of poly(ethylene) glycol dithiol, Eosin Y as a photoinitiator, and a visible light source, undergoes a rapid step-growth polymerization reaction through thiol-ene chemistry. The engineered bioink was loaded with Ropinirole HCL, dispensed through a piezoelectric nozzle onto a blank preform tablet, and polymerized. Drug release analysis of the tablet resulted in 60% release within 15 min of tablet dissolution. The study confirms the potential of inkjet printing for the rapid production of tablets through the deposition of a photocurable bioink designed for hydrophilic APIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle An Attempt to Predict the Preferential Cellular Orientation in Any Complex Mechanical Environment
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010016
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Cells respond to their mechanical environment in different ways: while their response in terms of differentiation and proliferation has been widely studied, the question of the direction in which cells align when subject to a complex mechanical loading in a 3D environment is
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Cells respond to their mechanical environment in different ways: while their response in terms of differentiation and proliferation has been widely studied, the question of the direction in which cells align when subject to a complex mechanical loading in a 3D environment is still widely open. In the present paper, we formulate the hypothesis that the cells orientate in the direction of unitary stretch computed from the right Cauchy-Green tensor in a given mechanical environment. The implications of this hypothesis are studied in different simple cases corresponding to either the available in vitro experimental data or physiological conditions, starting from finite element analysis results to computed preferential cellular orientation. The present contribution is a first step to the formulation of a deeper understanding of the orientation of cells within or at the surface of any 3D scaffold subject to any complex load. It is believed that these initial preferential directions have strong implications as far as the anisotropy of biological structures is concerned. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Macroscopic Dynamic Modeling of Sequential Batch Cultures of Hybridoma Cells: An Experimental Validation
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 17; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010017
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Hybridoma cells are commonly grown for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). For monitoring and control purposes of the bioreactors, dynamic models of the cultures are required. However these models are difficult to infer from the usually limited amount of available experimental data
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Hybridoma cells are commonly grown for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). For monitoring and control purposes of the bioreactors, dynamic models of the cultures are required. However these models are difficult to infer from the usually limited amount of available experimental data and do not focus on target protein production optimization. This paper explores an experimental case study where hybridoma cells are grown in a sequential batch reactor. The simplest macroscopic reaction scheme translating the data is first derived using a maximum likelihood principal component analysis. Subsequently, nonlinear least-squares estimation is used to determine the kinetic laws. The resulting dynamic model reproduces quite satisfactorily the experimental data, as evidenced in direct and cross-validation tests. Furthermore, model predictions can also be used to predict optimal medium renewal time and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applying Systems Biotechnology Tools to Study Cell Metabolism)
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Open AccessCommunication Antioxidant Activity of SOD and Catalase Conjugated with Nanocrystalline Ceria
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010018
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
Interactions of nanoparticles with biological matter—both somatically and in nature—draw scientists’ attention. Nanoparticulate systems are believed to be our saviors, acting as versatile drug delivery vehicles. However, they can also cause life-threatening bodily damage. One of the most important properties of nanocrystalline cerium
[...] Read more.
Interactions of nanoparticles with biological matter—both somatically and in nature—draw scientists’ attention. Nanoparticulate systems are believed to be our saviors, acting as versatile drug delivery vehicles. However, they can also cause life-threatening bodily damage. One of the most important properties of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide is its antioxidant activity, which decreases the abundance of reactive oxygen species during inflammation. In this paper, we report on synergistic effects of inorganic cerium oxide (IV) nanoparticles conjugated with the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase on scavenging oxygen and nitrogen radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Interaction with the Biological Milieu)
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Open AccessArticle Computation of Pacemakers Immunity to 50 Hz Electric Field: Induced Voltages 10 Times Greater in Unipolar Than in Bipolar Detection Mode
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 19; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010019
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Thisstudy aims to compute 50 Hz electric field interferences on pacemakers for diverse lead configurations and implantation positions. Induced phenomena in a surface-based virtual human model (standing male grounded with arms closed, 2 mm resolution) are computed for vertical exposure using CST EM
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Thisstudy aims to compute 50 Hz electric field interferences on pacemakers for diverse lead configurations and implantation positions. Induced phenomena in a surface-based virtual human model (standing male grounded with arms closed, 2 mm resolution) are computed for vertical exposure using CST EM® 3D software, with and without an implanted pacemaker. Induced interference voltages occurring on the pacemaker during exposure are computed and the results are discussed. The bipolar mode covers 99% of the implanted pacing leads in the USA and Europe, according to statistics. The tip-to-ring distance of a lead may influence up to 46% of the induced voltage. In bipolar sensing mode, right ventricle implantation has a 41% higher induced voltage than right atrium implantation. The induced voltage is in average 10 times greater in unipolar mode than in bipolar mode, when implanted in the right atrium or right ventricle. The electric field threshold of interference for a bipolar sensing mode in the worst case setting is 7.24 kV·m−1, and 10 times higher for nominal settings. These calculations will be completed by an in vitro study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 20; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010020
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production)
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Approach to State Estimation for Bioprocess Control
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 21; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010021
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
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Abstract
An improved state estimation technique for bioprocess control applications is proposed where a hybrid version of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is employed. The underlying dynamic system model is formulated as a conventional system of ordinary differential equations based on the mass balances
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An improved state estimation technique for bioprocess control applications is proposed where a hybrid version of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is employed. The underlying dynamic system model is formulated as a conventional system of ordinary differential equations based on the mass balances of the state variables biomass, substrate, and product, while the observation model, describing the less established relationship between the state variables and the measurement quantities, is formulated in a data driven way. The latter is formulated by means of a support vector regression (SVR) model. The UKF is applied to a recombinant therapeutic protein production process using Escherichia coli bacteria. Additionally, the state vector was extended by the specific biomass growth rate µ in order to allow for the estimation of this key variable which is crucial for the implementation of innovative control algorithms in recombinant therapeutic protein production processes. The state estimates depict a sufficiently low noise level which goes perfectly with different advanced bioprocess control applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Modelling and Multi-Parametric Control of Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Torrefaction on the Conversion Efficiency of the Gasification Process of Sugarcane Bagasse
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 22; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010022
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N2 at 10 °C·min−1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid
[...] Read more.
Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N2 at 10 °C·min−1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O–C and H–C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0.82 and 1.55, respectively. A calorific value of about 20.29 MJ·kg−1 was also measured for torrefied bagasse, which is around 13% higher than that for untorrefied bagasse with a value of ca. 17.9 MJ·kg−1. This confirms the former as a much more suitable feedstock for gasification than the latter since efficiency of gasification is a function of feedstock calorific value. SEM results also revealed a fibrous structure and pith in the micrographs of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse, indicating the carbonaceous nature of both materials, with torrefied bagasse exhibiting a more permeable structure with larger surface area, which are among the features that favour gasification. The gasification process of torrefied bagasse relied on computer simulation to establish the impact of torrefaction on gasification efficiency. Optimum efficiency was achieved with torrefied bagasse because of its slightly modified properties. Conversion efficiency of the gasification process of torrefied bagasse increased from 50% to approximately 60% after computer simulation, whereas that of untorrefied bagasse remained constant at 50%, even as the gasification time increased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Finite Element Simulation of NiTi Umbrella-Shaped Implant Used on Femoral Head under Different Loadings
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 23; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010023
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
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Abstract
In this study, an umbrella-shaped device that is used for osteonecrosis treatment is simulated. The femoral head is subjected to various complex loadings as a result of a person’s daily movements. Implant devices used in the body are made of shape memory alloy
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In this study, an umbrella-shaped device that is used for osteonecrosis treatment is simulated. The femoral head is subjected to various complex loadings as a result of a person’s daily movements. Implant devices used in the body are made of shape memory alloy materials because of their remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, good biocompatibility, and variable mechanical properties. Since this NiTi umbrella-shaped implant is simultaneously under several loadings, a 3-D model of shape memory alloy is utilized to investigate the behavior of the implant under different conditions. Shape memory and pseudo-elasticity behavior of NiTi is analyzed using a numerical model. The simulation is performed within different temperatures and in an isothermal condition with varied and complex loadings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the device under thermal and multi-axial forces via numerically study. Under tensile loading, the most critical points are on the top part of the implant. It is also shown that changes in temperature have a minor effect on the Von Mises stress. Applied forces and torques have significant influence on the femoral head. Simulations results indicate that the top portion of the umbrella is under the most stress when embedded in the body. Consequently, the middle, curved portion of the umbrella is under the least amount of stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of a Diaphragm for a Micro-Shock Tube-Based Drug Delivery Method
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 24; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010024
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the design optimization of diaphragms for a micro-shock tube-based drug delivery device. The function of the diaphragm is to impart the required velocity and direction to the loosely held drug particles on the diaphragm through van der Waals interaction. The
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the design optimization of diaphragms for a micro-shock tube-based drug delivery device. The function of the diaphragm is to impart the required velocity and direction to the loosely held drug particles on the diaphragm through van der Waals interaction. The finite element model-based studies involved diaphragms made up of copper, brass and aluminium. The study of the influence of material and geometric parameters serves as a vital tool in optimizing the magnitude and direction of velocity distribution on the diaphragm surface. Experiments carried out using a micro-shock tube validate the final deformed shape of the diaphragms determined from the finite element simulation. The diaphragm yields a maximum velocity of 335 m/s for which the maximum deviation of the velocity vector is 0.62°. Drug particles that travel to the destination target tissue are simulated using the estimated velocity distribution and angular deviation. Further, a theoretical model of penetration helps in the prediction of the drug particle penetration in the skin tissue like a target, which is found to be 0.126 mm. The design and calibration procedure of a micro-shock tube device to alter drug particle penetration considering the skin thickness and property are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Drug Delivery Systems and Devices)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Polysaccharide Fabrication Platforms and Biocompatibility Assessment as Candidate Wound Dressing Materials
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010001
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract
Wound dressings are critical for wound care because they provide a physical barrier between the injury site and outside environment, preventing further damage or infection. Wound dressings also manage and even encourage the wound healing process for proper recovery. Polysaccharide biopolymers are slowly
[...] Read more.
Wound dressings are critical for wound care because they provide a physical barrier between the injury site and outside environment, preventing further damage or infection. Wound dressings also manage and even encourage the wound healing process for proper recovery. Polysaccharide biopolymers are slowly becoming popular as modern wound dressings materials because they are naturally derived, highly abundant, inexpensive, absorbent, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. Polysaccharide biopolymers have also been processed into biomimetic platforms that offer a bioactive component in wound dressings that aid the healing process. This review primarily focuses on the fabrication and biocompatibility assessment of polysaccharide materials. Specifically, fabrication platforms such as electrospun fibers and hydrogels, their fabrication considerations and popular polysaccharides such as chitosan, alginate, and hyaluronic acid among emerging options such as arabinoxylan are discussed. A survey of biocompatibility and bioactive molecule release studies, leveraging polysaccharide’s naturally derived properties, is highlighted in the text, while challenges and future directions for wound dressing development using emerging fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting are outlined in the conclusion. This paper aims to encourage further investigation and open up new, disruptive avenues for polysaccharides in wound dressing material development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Drug Delivery Systems and Devices)
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Open AccessReview pH-Responsive Mesoporous Silica and Carbon Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010003
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract
The application of nanotechnology to medicine constitutes a major field of research nowadays. In particular, the use of mesoporous silica and carbon nanoparticles has attracted the attention of numerous researchers due to their unique properties, especially when applied to cancer treatment. Many strategies
[...] Read more.
The application of nanotechnology to medicine constitutes a major field of research nowadays. In particular, the use of mesoporous silica and carbon nanoparticles has attracted the attention of numerous researchers due to their unique properties, especially when applied to cancer treatment. Many strategies based on stimuli-responsive nanocarriers have been developed to control the drug release and avoid premature release. Here, we focus on the use of the subtle changes of pH between healthy and diseased areas along the body to trigger the release of the cargo. In this review, different approximations of pH-responsive systems are considered: those based on the use of the host-guest interactions between the nanocarriers and the drugs, those based on the hydrolysis of acid-labile bonds and those based on supramolecular structures acting as pore capping agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview Vasculature-On-A-Chip for In Vitro Disease Models
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010008
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
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Abstract
Vascularization, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential biological process. As the vasculature is involved in various fundamental physiological phenomena and closely related to several human diseases, it is imperative that substantial research is conducted on characterizing the vasculature and its
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Vascularization, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential biological process. As the vasculature is involved in various fundamental physiological phenomena and closely related to several human diseases, it is imperative that substantial research is conducted on characterizing the vasculature and its related diseases. A significant evolution has been made to describe the vascularization process so that in vitro recapitulation of vascularization is possible. The current microfluidic systems allow elaborative research on the effects of various cues for vascularization, and furthermore, in vitro technologies have a great potential for being applied to the vascular disease models for studying pathological events and developing drug screening platforms. Here, we review methods of fabrication for microfluidic assays and inducing factors for vascularization. We also discuss applications using engineered vasculature such as in vitro vascular disease models, vasculature in organ-on-chips and drug screening platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Organs-on-Chips for In Vitro Disease Models)
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Open AccessReview 3D Printing of Organs-On-Chips
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010010
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
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Abstract
Organ-on-a-chip engineering aims to create artificial living organs that mimic the complex and physiological responses of real organs, in order to test drugs by precisely manipulating the cells and their microenvironments. To achieve this, the artificial organs should to be microfabricated with an
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Organ-on-a-chip engineering aims to create artificial living organs that mimic the complex and physiological responses of real organs, in order to test drugs by precisely manipulating the cells and their microenvironments. To achieve this, the artificial organs should to be microfabricated with an extracellular matrix (ECM) and various types of cells, and should recapitulate morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and functions according to the native organ. A promising strategy is 3D printing, which precisely controls the spatial distribution and layer-by-layer assembly of cells, ECMs, and other biomaterials. Owing to this unique advantage, integration of 3D printing into organ-on-a-chip engineering can facilitate the creation of micro-organs with heterogeneity, a desired 3D cellular arrangement, tissue-specific functions, or even cyclic movement within a microfluidic device. Moreover, fully 3D-printed organs-on-chips more easily incorporate other mechanical and electrical components with the chips, and can be commercialized via automated massive production. Herein, we discuss the recent advances and the potential of 3D cell-printing technology in engineering organs-on-chips, and provides the future perspectives of this technology to establish the highly reliable and useful drug-screening platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Organs-on-Chips for In Vitro Disease Models)
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Open AccessReview Biophysical Tools to Study Cellular Mechanotransduction
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 12; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010012
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
The cell membrane is the interface that volumetrically isolates cellular components from the cell’s environment. Proteins embedded within and on the membrane have varied biological functions: reception of external biochemical signals, as membrane channels, amplification and regulation of chemical signals through secondary messenger
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The cell membrane is the interface that volumetrically isolates cellular components from the cell’s environment. Proteins embedded within and on the membrane have varied biological functions: reception of external biochemical signals, as membrane channels, amplification and regulation of chemical signals through secondary messenger molecules, controlled exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, organized recruitment and sequestration of cytosolic complex proteins, cell division processes, organization of the cytoskeleton and more. The membrane’s bioelectrical role is enabled by the physiologically controlled release and accumulation of electrochemical potential modulating molecules across the membrane through specialized ion channels (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, K+ channels). The membrane’s biomechanical functions include sensing external forces and/or the rigidity of the external environment through force transmission, specific conformational changes and/or signaling through mechanoreceptors (e.g., platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, epithelial (E)-cadherin, integrin) embedded in the membrane. Certain mechanical stimulations through specific receptor complexes induce electrical and/or chemical impulses in cells and propagate across cells and tissues. These biomechanical sensory and biochemical responses have profound implications in normal physiology and disease. Here, we discuss the tools that facilitate the understanding of mechanosensitive adhesion receptors. This article is structured to provide a broad biochemical and mechanobiology background to introduce a freshman mechano-biologist to the field of mechanotransduction, with deeper study enabled by many of the references cited herein. Full article
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Open AccessReview Engineering the RNA-Nanobio Interface
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 13; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010013
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
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Abstract
RNA nanotechnology is attracting a great deal of attention recently. As the multiple roles that RNA plays in molecular biology and physiological regulation become clearer, there are many opportunities for engineering RNA-Nanoparticle Complexes (RNA-NPCs). The high “engineerability” of RNA-NPCs comes from the ability
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RNA nanotechnology is attracting a great deal of attention recently. As the multiple roles that RNA plays in molecular biology and physiological regulation become clearer, there are many opportunities for engineering RNA-Nanoparticle Complexes (RNA-NPCs). The high “engineerability” of RNA-NPCs comes from the ability to modify the RNA and NP chemistry. For example, the NP can be derived from materials with anticancer activity and the RNA delivered by it, designed to target cell signaling pathways that contribute to the molecular basis of these diseases. Despite this rapid advancement and the availability of new quantification and characterization techniques, a key challenge is to develop a better understanding of the RNA-nanobio interface; that is, the interactions of RNA with NP (RNA-nanobio interface) and how that impacts the structure, function, delivery, and activity of the RNA. Here, we attempt to summarize the state-of-the-art in this new and exciting field, and to lay out potential directions for bioengineering research on RNA-NPCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Interaction with the Biological Milieu)
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Open AccessReview Biosynthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: A Fresh Look at the Control of Shape, Size and Composition
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 14; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010014
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
Several methodologies have been devised for the design of nanomaterials. The “Holy Grail” for materials scientists is the cost-effective, eco-friendly synthesis of nanomaterials with controlled sizes, shapes and compositions, as these features confer to the as-produced nanocrystals unique properties making them appropriate candidates
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Several methodologies have been devised for the design of nanomaterials. The “Holy Grail” for materials scientists is the cost-effective, eco-friendly synthesis of nanomaterials with controlled sizes, shapes and compositions, as these features confer to the as-produced nanocrystals unique properties making them appropriate candidates for valuable bio-applications. The present review summarizes published data regarding the production of nanomaterials with special features via sustainable methodologies based on the utilization of natural bioresources. The richness of the latter, the diversity of the routes adopted and the tuned experimental parameters have led to the fabrication of nanomaterials belonging to different chemical families with appropriate compositions and displaying interesting sizes and shapes. It is expected that these outstanding findings will encourage researchers and attract newcomers to continue and extend the exploration of possibilities offered by nature and the design of innovative and safer methodologies towards the synthesis of unique nanomaterials, possessing desired features and exhibiting valuable properties that can be exploited in a profusion of fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Interaction with the Biological Milieu)
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Open AccessReview Composite Biomaterials Based on Sol-Gel Mesoporous Silicate Glasses: A Review
Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 15; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010015
Received: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone and stimulate the growth of new tissue while dissolving over time, which makes them ideal materials for regenerative medicine. The advent of mesoporous glasses, which are typically synthesized via sol-gel routes, allowed researchers to develop
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Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone and stimulate the growth of new tissue while dissolving over time, which makes them ideal materials for regenerative medicine. The advent of mesoporous glasses, which are typically synthesized via sol-gel routes, allowed researchers to develop a broad and versatile class of novel biomaterials that combine superior bone regenerative potential (compared to traditional melt-derived glasses) with the ability of incorporating drugs and various biomolecules for targeted therapy in situ. Mesoporous glass particles can be directly embedded as a bioactive phase within a non-porous (e.g., microspheres), porous (3D scaffolds) or injectable matrix, or be processed to manufacture a surface coating on inorganic or organic (macro)porous substrates, thereby obtaining hierarchical structures with multiscale porosity. This review provides a picture of composite systems and coatings based on mesoporous glasses and highlights the challenges for the future, including the great potential of inorganic–organic hybrid sol-gel biomaterials. Full article
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