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Bioengineering 2017, 4(1), 19; doi:10.3390/bioengineering4010019

Computation of Pacemakers Immunity to 50 Hz Electric Field: Induced Voltages 10 Times Greater in Unipolar Than in Bipolar Detection Mode

1
Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine-CNRS (UMR 7198), BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre, France
2
EDF R&D, Avenue des Renardières–Ecuelles, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing, France
3
EDF SEM, Immeuble Carré Vert, 45 rue Kleber, 92309 Levallois-Perret CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ramana Pidaparti
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract

Thisstudy aims to compute 50 Hz electric field interferences on pacemakers for diverse lead configurations and implantation positions. Induced phenomena in a surface-based virtual human model (standing male grounded with arms closed, 2 mm resolution) are computed for vertical exposure using CST EM® 3D software, with and without an implanted pacemaker. Induced interference voltages occurring on the pacemaker during exposure are computed and the results are discussed. The bipolar mode covers 99% of the implanted pacing leads in the USA and Europe, according to statistics. The tip-to-ring distance of a lead may influence up to 46% of the induced voltage. In bipolar sensing mode, right ventricle implantation has a 41% higher induced voltage than right atrium implantation. The induced voltage is in average 10 times greater in unipolar mode than in bipolar mode, when implanted in the right atrium or right ventricle. The electric field threshold of interference for a bipolar sensing mode in the worst case setting is 7.24 kV·m−1, and 10 times higher for nominal settings. These calculations will be completed by an in vitro study. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric field; low frequency; active implantable medical devices; implanted cardiac defibrillators; pacemaker; cardiac implants electric field; low frequency; active implantable medical devices; implanted cardiac defibrillators; pacemaker; cardiac implants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gercek, C.; Kourtiche, D.; Nadi, M.; Magne, I.; Schmitt, P.; Souques, M. Computation of Pacemakers Immunity to 50 Hz Electric Field: Induced Voltages 10 Times Greater in Unipolar Than in Bipolar Detection Mode. Bioengineering 2017, 4, 19.

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