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Nanomaterials, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Advancements in plasma-enabled synthesis have led to the development of novel and effective methods [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Development of Poly(lactic acid)/Chitosan Fibers Loaded with Essential Oil for Antimicrobial Applications
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070194
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was successfully encapsulated into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles at different loading amounts (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% v/v) using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion and ionic-gelation methods. In order to form active packaging, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was used to
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Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was successfully encapsulated into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles at different loading amounts (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% v/v) using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion and ionic-gelation methods. In order to form active packaging, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was used to fabricate PLA/CS-CEO composite fibers using a simple electrospinning method. The shape, size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficacy of the CS-CEO nanoparticles were investigated. The composition, morphology, and release behavior of the composite fibers were investigated. PLA/CS-CEO-1.5 showed good stability and favorable sustained release of CEO, resulting in improved antimicrobial activity compared to the other blends. The PLA/CS-CEO fibers showed high long-term inactivation rates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the sustained release of CEO, indicating that the developed PLA/CS-CEO fibers have great potential for active food packaging applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Silver Nanoparticles PEALD Process on the Surface of 1-D Titania Coatings
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070193
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silver nanoparticles on the surface of 1-D titania coatings, such as nanotubes (TNT) and nanoneedles (TNN), has been carried out. The formation of TNT and TNN layers enriched with dispersed silver particles of strictly defined sizes
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Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silver nanoparticles on the surface of 1-D titania coatings, such as nanotubes (TNT) and nanoneedles (TNN), has been carried out. The formation of TNT and TNN layers enriched with dispersed silver particles of strictly defined sizes and the estimation of their bioactivity was the aim of our investigations. The structure and the morphology of produced materials were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM). Their bioactivity and potential usefulness in the modification of implants surface have been estimated on the basis of the fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation assays, and on the basis of the determination of their antibacterial activity. The cumulative silver release profiles have been checked with the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), in order to exclude potential cytotoxicity of silver decorated systems. Among the studied nanocomposite samples, TNT coatings, prepared at 3, 10, 12 V and enriched with silver nanoparticles produced during 25 cycles of PEALD, revealed suitable biointegration properties and may actively counteract the formation of bacterial biofilm. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication A Simple and Highly Sensitive Thymine Sensor for Mercury Ion Detection Based on Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and the Mechanism Study
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070192
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mercury ion (Hg2+) is recognized as one of the most toxic metal ions for the environment and for human health. Techniques utilized in the detection of Hg2+ are an important factor. Herein, a simple thymine was successfully employed as the
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Mercury ion (Hg2+) is recognized as one of the most toxic metal ions for the environment and for human health. Techniques utilized in the detection of Hg2+ are an important factor. Herein, a simple thymine was successfully employed as the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy sensor for Hg2+ ion detection. The limit of detection (LOD) of the developed sensor is better than 0.1 nM (0.02 ppb). This sensor can also selectively distinguish Hg2+ ions over 7 types of alkali, heavy metal and transition-metal ions. Moreover, the LOD of the sensor can even achieve 1 ppb in practical application in the nature system, which is half the maximum allowable level (10 nM, 2 ppb) stipulated in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard. Further investigation of the thymine-Hg2+-thymine coordination mechanism provides a possible means of detecting other metal ions by replacing the metal ion-specific ligands. This work paves the way for the detection of toxic metal ions and environmental problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for SERS Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Highly Efficient Near Infrared Photothermal Conversion Properties of Reduced Tungsten Oxide/Polyurethane Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070191
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
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Abstract
In this work, novel WO3-x/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared by ball milling followed by stirring using a planetary mixer/de-aerator. The effects of phase transformation (WO3 → WO2.8 → WO2.72) and different weight fractions of tungsten oxide
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In this work, novel WO3-x/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared by ball milling followed by stirring using a planetary mixer/de-aerator. The effects of phase transformation (WO3 → WO2.8 → WO2.72) and different weight fractions of tungsten oxide on the optical performance, photothermal conversion, and thermal properties of the prepared nanocomposites were examined. It was found that the nanocomposites exhibited strong photoabsorption in the entire near-infrared (NIR) region of 780–2500 nm and excellent photothermal conversion properties. This is because the particle size of WO3-x was greatly reduced by ball milling and they were well-dispersed in the polyurethane matrix. The higher concentration of oxygen vacancies in WO3-x contribute to the efficient absorption of NIR light and its conversion into thermal energy. In particular, WO2.72/PU nanocomposites showed strong NIR light absorption of ca. 92%, high photothermal conversion, and better thermal conductivity and absorptivity than other WO3/PU nanocomposites. Furthermore, when the nanocomposite with 7 wt % concentration of WO2.72 nanoparticles was irradiated with infrared light, the temperature of the nanocomposite increased rapidly and stabilized at 120 °C after 5 min. This temperature is 52 °C higher than that achieved by pure PU. These nanocomposites are suitable functional materials for solar collectors, smart coatings, and energy-saving applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Nanoemulsions: Comparison between Nanoemulsions Formed by Ultrasonication and by Spontaneous Emulsification
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070190
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoemulsions are particularly suitable as a platform in the development of delivery systems. The type of nanoemulsion with a higher stability will offer an advantage in the preparation of a delivery system for lipophilic drugs. Nanoemulsions can be fabricated by different processing methods,
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Nanoemulsions are particularly suitable as a platform in the development of delivery systems. The type of nanoemulsion with a higher stability will offer an advantage in the preparation of a delivery system for lipophilic drugs. Nanoemulsions can be fabricated by different processing methods, which are usually categorized as either high- or low-energy methods. In this study, a comparison between two methods of preparing magnetic oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions is described. The nanoemulsions were formed by sonication (the high-energy method) or by spontaneous emulsification (the low-energy method). In both cases, the oil phase was olive oil, and a phospholipid and a pegylated phospholipid were used as emulsifiers. To favor the comparison, the amounts of the components were the same in both kinds of nanoemulsions. Moreover, nanoemulsions were loaded with hydrophobic superparamagnetic nanoparticles and indomethacin. In vitro, releases studies indicated a short drug burst period followed by a prolonged phase of dissolutive drug release. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model can fit the associated kinetics. The results showed that such nanoemulsions are suitable as a platform in the development of delivering systems for lipophilic drugs. The long-term stability was also examined at different temperatures, as well as the interaction with plasma proteins. Nanoemulsion obtained by the low-energy method showed a great stability at 4 °C and at ambient temperature. Its size and polydispersity did not change over more than two months. The spontaneous emulsification method therefore has great potential for forming nanoemulsion-based delivery systems. Full article
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Open AccessReview Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Vehicles in Cancer
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070189
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (3194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Even though cancer treatment has improved over the recent decades, still more specific and effective treatment concepts are mandatory. Surgical removal is not always possible, metastases are challenging and chemo- and radiotherapy can not only have severe side-effects but also resistances may occur.
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Even though cancer treatment has improved over the recent decades, still more specific and effective treatment concepts are mandatory. Surgical removal is not always possible, metastases are challenging and chemo- and radiotherapy can not only have severe side-effects but also resistances may occur. To cope with these challenges more efficient therapies with fewer side-effects are required. One promising approach is the use of drug delivery vehicles. Here, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are discussed as biodegradable drug carrier to improve efficacy and reduce side-effects. MSN excellently fulfill the criteria for nanoparticulate carriers: their distinct structure allows high loading capacity and a plethora of surface modifications. MSN synthesis permits fine-tuning of particle and pore sizes. Moreover, drug release can be tailored through various gatekeeper systems which are for example pH-sensitive or redox-sensitive. Furthermore, MSN can either enter tumors passively by the enhanced permeability and retention effect or can be actively targeted by various ligands. PEGylation prolongs circulation time and availability. A huge advantage of MSN is their explicitly low toxic profile in vivo. Yet, clinical translation remains challenging. Overall, mesoporous silica nanoparticles are a promising tool for innovative, more efficient and safer cancer therapies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Growth Mechanism Studies of ZnO Nanowires: Experimental Observations and Short-Circuit Diffusion Analysis
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070188
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plenty of studies have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since analyzing the growth mechanism along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a
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Plenty of studies have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since analyzing the growth mechanism along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a single ZnO nanowire was synthesized using a Ti-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to avoid the appearance of catalytic contamination. Two-dimensional energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping with a diffusion model was used to obtain the diffusion length and the activation energy ratio. The ratio value is close to 0.3, revealing that the growth of ZnO nanowires was attributed to the short-circuit diffusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZnO and TiO2 Based Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Cement Mortar and Ultra-High Strength Concrete Incorporating Graphene Oxide Nanosheets
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070187
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the effect of graphene oxide nanosheet (GONS) additives on the properties of cement mortar and ultra-high strength concrete (UHSC) is reported. The resulting GONS-cement composites were easy to prepare and exhibited excellent mechanical properties. However, their fluidity decreased with increasing
[...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of graphene oxide nanosheet (GONS) additives on the properties of cement mortar and ultra-high strength concrete (UHSC) is reported. The resulting GONS-cement composites were easy to prepare and exhibited excellent mechanical properties. However, their fluidity decreased with increasing GONS content. The UHSC specimens were prepared with various amounts of GONSs (0–0.03% by weight of cement). Results indicated that using 0.01% by weight of cement GONSs caused a 7.82% in compressive strength after 28 days of curing. Moreover, adding GONSs improved the flexural strength and deformation ability, with the increase in flexural strength more than that of compressive strength. Furthermore, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the hardened cement paste and UHSC samples. FE-SEM observations showed that the GONSs were well dispersed in the matrix and the bonding of the GONSs and the surrounding cement matrix was strong. Furthermore, FE-SEM observation indicated that the GONSs probably affected the shape of the cement hydration products. However, the growth space for hydrates also had an important effect on the morphology of hydrates. The true hydration mechanism of cement composites with GONSs needs further study. Full article
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Open AccessReview Application of Carbon Nanotubes in Chiral and Achiral Separations of Pharmaceuticals, Biologics and Chemicals
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070186
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique mechanical, physical, electrical and absorbability properties coupled with their nanometer dimensional scale that renders them extremely valuable for applications in many fields including nanotechnology and chromatographic separation. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique mechanical, physical, electrical and absorbability properties coupled with their nanometer dimensional scale that renders them extremely valuable for applications in many fields including nanotechnology and chromatographic separation. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview about the applications of CNTs in chiral and achiral separations of pharmaceuticals, biologics and chemicals. Chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been directly applied for the enantioseparation of pharmaceuticals and biologicals by using them as stationary or pseudostationary phases in chromatographic separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gas chromatography (GC). Achiral MWCNTs have been used for achiral separations as efficient sorbent objects in solid-phase extraction techniques of biochemicals and drugs. Achiral SWCNTs have been applied in achiral separation of biological samples. Achiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been also successfully used to separate achiral mixtures of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Collectively, functionalized CNTs have been indirectly applied in separation science by enhancing the enantioseparation of different chiral selectors whereas non-functionalized CNTs have shown efficient capabilities for chiral separations by using techniques such as encapsulation or immobilization in polymer monolithic columns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Chiral Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Alkali Metal Atoms Doping on Structural and Nonlinear Optical Properties of the Gold-Germanium Bimetallic Clusters
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070184
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
A new series of alkali-based complexes, AM@GenAu (AM = Li, Na, and K), have been theoretically designed and investigated by means of the density functional theory calculations. The geometric structures and electronic properties of the species are systematically analyzed. The adsorption
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A new series of alkali-based complexes, AM@GenAu (AM = Li, Na, and K), have been theoretically designed and investigated by means of the density functional theory calculations. The geometric structures and electronic properties of the species are systematically analyzed. The adsorption of alkali metals maintains the structural framework of the gold-germanium bimetallic clusters, and the alkali metals prefer energetically to be attached on clusters’ surfaces or edges. The high chemical stability of Li@Ge12Au is revealed by the spherical aromaticity, the hybridization between the Ge atoms and Au-4d states, and delocalized multi-center bonds, as well as large binding energies. The static first hyperpolarizability (βtot) is related to the cluster size and geometric structure, and the AM@GenAu (AM = Na and K) clusters exhibit the much larger βtot values up to 13050 a.u., which are considerable to establish their strong nonlinear optical (NLO) behaviors. We hope that this study will promote further application of alkali metals-adsorbed germanium-based semiconductor materials, serving for the design of remarkable and tunable NLO materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiconductor Core/Shell Nanocrystals for Optoelectronic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Nano-Silica Sol-Gel and Carbon Nanotube Coupling Effect on the Performance of Cement-Based Materials
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070185
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promise for improving the mechanical performance of cement composites through crack-bridging and frictional pull-out. The interactive behaviors between CNTs and cement matrix act are crucial in optimizing the reinforcement of CNTs in cement composites. This study investigates the
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promise for improving the mechanical performance of cement composites through crack-bridging and frictional pull-out. The interactive behaviors between CNTs and cement matrix act are crucial in optimizing the reinforcement of CNTs in cement composites. This study investigates the effects of nano-silica (NS) sol-gel on the interactive behaviors of CNTs and the cement matrix through a series of experiments and analyses. UV-visible spectrometer results show that CNTs are well-dispersed in suspension and the addition of NS has a negligible effect on the stability of CNT dispersion. Calorimetry tests and dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrate the nucleation and frictional performance of CNTs in cement matrix, respectively. The paper shows that the physical adsorption of NS on the CNT surface could result in the acceleration of cement hydration. Morphology observation confirms that a denser interface between CNTs and cement hydrates is formed. Finally, the improved interaction between CNTs and cement hydrates leads to a substantial increase in friction between CNTs and the cement matrix under periodic loading. NS may act as an ideal admixture for improving both the interactive behaviors between CNTs and cement matrix and the damping properties of cement composite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Erosion Behavior and Particle Contamination in Mass-Production CF4/O2 Plasma Chambers Using Y2O3 and YF3 Protective Coatings
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070183
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Yttrium fluoride (YF3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) protective coatings prepared using an atmospheric plasma spraying technique were used to investigate the relationship between surface erosion behaviors and their nanoparticle generation under high-density plasma (1012–1013
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Yttrium fluoride (YF3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) protective coatings prepared using an atmospheric plasma spraying technique were used to investigate the relationship between surface erosion behaviors and their nanoparticle generation under high-density plasma (1012–1013 cm−3) etching. As examined by transmission electron microscopy, the Y2O3 and YF3 coatings become oxyfluorinated after exposure to the plasma, wherein the yttrium oxyfluoride film formation was observed on the surface with a thickness of 5.2 and 6.8 nm, respectively. The difference in the oxyfluorination of Y2O3 and YF3 coatings could be attributed to Y–F and Y–O bonding energies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that a strongly fluorinated bonding (Y–F bond) was obtained on the etched surface of the YF3 coating. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanoparticles on the 12-inch wafer are composed of etchant gases and Y2O3. These results indicate that the YF3 coating is a more erosion-resistant material, resulting in fewer contamination particles compared with the Y2O3 coating. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oil Palm Waste-Based Precursors as a Renewable and Economical Carbon Sources for the Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide from Graphene Oxide
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070182
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Herein, a new approach was proposed to produce reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphene oxide (GO) using various oil palm wastes: oil palm leaves (OPL), palm kernel shells (PKS) and empty fruit bunches (EFB). The effect of heating temperature on the formation of
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Herein, a new approach was proposed to produce reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphene oxide (GO) using various oil palm wastes: oil palm leaves (OPL), palm kernel shells (PKS) and empty fruit bunches (EFB). The effect of heating temperature on the formation of graphitic carbon and the yield was examined prior to the GO and rGO synthesis. Carbonization of the starting materials was conducted in a furnace under nitrogen gas for 3 h at temperatures ranging from 400 to 900 °C and a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min. The GO was further synthesized from the as-carbonized materials using the ‘improved synthesis of graphene oxide’ method. Subsequently, the GO was reduced by low-temperature annealing reduction at 300 °C in a furnace under nitrogen gas for 1 h. The IG/ID ratio calculated from the Raman study increases with the increasing of the degree of the graphitization in the order of rGO from oil palm leaves (rGOOPL) < rGO palm kernel shells (rGOPKS) < rGO commercial graphite (rGOCG) < rGO empty fruit bunches (rGOEFB) with the IG/ID values of 1.06, 1.14, 1.16 and 1.20, respectively. The surface area and pore volume analyses of the as-prepared materials were performed using the Brunauer Emmett Teller-Nitrogen (BET-N2) adsorption-desorption isotherms method. The lower BET surface area of 8 and 15 m2 g−1 observed for rGOCG and rGOOPL, respectively could be due to partial restacking of GO layers and locally-blocked pores. Relatively, this lower BET surface area is inconsequential when compared to rGOPKS and rGOEFB, which have a surface area of 114 and 117 m2 g−1, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Dissolution-Induced Nanowire Synthesis on Hot-Dip Galvanized Surface in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070181
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we demonstrate a rapid treatment method for producing a needle-like nanowire structure on a hot-dip galvanized sheet at a temperature of 50 °C. The processing method involved only supercritical carbon dioxide and water to induce a reaction on the zinc
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In this study, we demonstrate a rapid treatment method for producing a needle-like nanowire structure on a hot-dip galvanized sheet at a temperature of 50 °C. The processing method involved only supercritical carbon dioxide and water to induce a reaction on the zinc surface, which resulted in growth of zinc hydroxycarbonate nanowires into flower-like shapes. This artificial patina nanostructure predicts high surface area and offers interesting opportunities for its use in industrial high-end applications. The nanowires can significantly improve paint adhesion and promote electrochemical stability for organic coatings, or be converted to ZnO nanostructures by calcining to be used in various semiconductor applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nanoporous Structure Formation in GaSb, InSb, and Ge by Ion Beam Irradiation under Controlled Point Defect Creation Conditions
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070180
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Ion beam irradiation-induced nanoporous structure formation was investigated on GaSb, InSb, and Ge surfaces via controlled point defect creation using a focused ion beam (FIB). ‎This paper compares the nanoporous structure formation under the same extent of point defect creation while changing the
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Ion beam irradiation-induced nanoporous structure formation was investigated on GaSb, InSb, and Ge surfaces via controlled point defect creation using a focused ion beam (FIB). ‎This paper compares the nanoporous structure formation under the same extent of point defect creation while changing the accelerating voltage and ion dose. Although the same number of point defects were created in each case, different structures were formed on the different surfaces. The depth direction density of the point defects was an important factor in this trend. The number of point defects required for nanoporous structure formation was 4 × 1022 vacancies/m2 at a depth of 18 nm under the surface, based on a comparison of similar nanoporous structure features in GaSb. The nanoporous structure formation by ion beam irradiation on GaSb, InSb, and Ge surfaces was controlled by the number and areal distribution of the created point defects. Full article
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