Special Issue "Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hicham Fenniri

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 313 Snell Engineering Center, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-617-373-7690
Fax: +1-617-373-2209
Interests: nanotechnology for biomedical applications; nanoscale materials for drug delivery; and cell therapeutics and regenerative medicine
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Adam Ekenseair

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 313 Snell Engineering Center, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-617-373-8742
Fax: +1-617-373-2209
Interests: synthesis and application of novel polymeric biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanofibrous architectures are key structural and functional elements in a wide array of biological systems. As a result, there are increasing efforts to replicate these structural motifs as biomedical scaffolds for tissue regeneration, in vitro cell culture, medical device coatings, and tissue sealants. Naturally-derived, synthetic, and self-assembling fibrous nanostructures are being used to create open fibrous scaffolds, embedded fiber networks within a matrix phase, and a variety of more complex arrangements.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will survey progress and challenges and present the current state-of-the-art in the use of chemistry and engineering to create nanofibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. For this effort, we have invited contributions from leading groups in the field with the aim of giving a balanced view of the current status and future prospects within this field of research.

Prof. Dr. Hicham Fenniri
Prof. Dr. Adam Ekenseair
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Nanofibers

  • organic nanotubes

  • nanofibrous scaffolds

  • self-assembling nanostructures

  • biomaterials

  • biopolymers

  • fibrous hydrogels

  • tissue engineering

  • cell culture

  • medical device coatings

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Fibrin-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Potential Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 436; doi:10.3390/nano7120436
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 10 December 2017
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Abstract
Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs
[...] Read more.
Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO). First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts. We further evaluated their biocompatibility ex vivo with a chick embryo organotypic culture model. Subcutaneous implantations of the matrices were subsequently conducted on nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. Our preliminary data highlighted that our biomaterials were non-cytotoxic (viability above 90%). The organotypic culture showed that the IPN matrices induced higher cell adhesion (across all the explanted organ tissues) and migration (skin, intestine) than the control groups, suggesting the advantages of using a biomimetic, yet mechanically-reinforced IPN-based matrix. We observed no major inflammatory response up to 12 weeks post implantation. All together, these data suggest that these fibrin-based IPNs are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Response of Dermal Fibroblasts to Biochemical and Physical Cues in Aligned Polycaprolactone/Silk Fibroin Nanofiber Scaffolds for Application in Tendon Tissue Engineering
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(8), 219; doi:10.3390/nano7080219
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Silk fibroin (SF) and fiber alignment were introduced into polycaprolactone (PCL)-based electrospun nanofibers as chemical and physical cues for tendon tissue engineering applications. The physicochemical properties of random PCL (RP) nanofibers, random PCL/SF (RPSF) nanofibers and aligned PCL/SF (APSF) nanofibers were characterized for
[...] Read more.
Silk fibroin (SF) and fiber alignment were introduced into polycaprolactone (PCL)-based electrospun nanofibers as chemical and physical cues for tendon tissue engineering applications. The physicochemical properties of random PCL (RP) nanofibers, random PCL/SF (RPSF) nanofibers and aligned PCL/SF (APSF) nanofibers were characterized for fiber orientation and SF blending effects. An in vitro cell culture with rabbit dermal fibroblasts (RDFBs) on nanofibers indicated that SF promotes cell proliferation to a higher extent than fiber alignment. Cells aligned in the direction of fiber axes could be confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and cytoskeleton staining. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments indicated up-regulated gene expression of tendon marker proteins (type I collagen (Col I), fibronectin and biglycan) on APSF nanofibers and tendon reconstruction was confirmed from Col III gene expression. Animal experiments with Achilles tendon defect repairs in rabbits were carried out with RPSF and APSF scaffolds. The beneficial effects of fiber alignment were verified from histological and immunohistochemical staining, where cell migration and extracellular matrix protein deposition tend to stretch in a parallel direction along the axial direction of APSF nanofibers with enhanced Col I and tenascin C production. Biomechanical testing indicated the tensile stiffness and maximum load of cell-seeded APSF scaffolds were 60.2 and 81.3% of normal tendon values, respectively, which are significantly higher than cell-seeded RPSF or acellular APSF and RPSF scaffolds. These results suggest that APSF nanofiber scaffolds combined with RDFBs have the potential to repair the gap defects of Achilles tendons in vivo and to effectively restore the function and structure of tendons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Copolymer Composition on PLGA/nHA Scaffolds’ Cytotoxicity and In Vitro Degradation
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 173; doi:10.3390/nano7070173
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
The influence of copolymer composition on Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide)/nanohydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds is studied in the context of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The composite scaffolds are fabricated by thermally-induced phase separation and the effect of bioactive nanoparticles on their in vitro
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The influence of copolymer composition on Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide)/nanohydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds is studied in the context of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The composite scaffolds are fabricated by thermally-induced phase separation and the effect of bioactive nanoparticles on their in vitro degradation in phosphate-buffered solution at 37 °C is analyzed over eight weeks. The indirect cytotoxicity evaluation of the samples followed an adaptation of the ISO 10993-5 standard test method. Based on the measurement of their molecular weight, molar mass, pH, water absorption and dimensions, the porous scaffolds of PLGA with a lower lactide/glycolide (LA/GA) molar ratio degraded faster due to their higher hydrophilicity. All of the samples without and with HA are not cytotoxic, demonstrating their potential for tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactivity Studies on Titania Coatings and the Estimation of Their Usefulness in the Modification of Implant Surfaces
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(4), 90; doi:10.3390/nano7040090
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
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Abstract
Morphologically different titania coatings (nanofibers (TNFs), nanoneedles (TNNs), and nanowires (TNWs)) were studied as potential biomedical materials. The abovementioned systems were produced in situ on Ti6Al4V substrates via direct oxidation processes using H2O2 and H2O2/CaCl2
[...] Read more.
Morphologically different titania coatings (nanofibers (TNFs), nanoneedles (TNNs), and nanowires (TNWs)) were studied as potential biomedical materials. The abovementioned systems were produced in situ on Ti6Al4V substrates via direct oxidation processes using H2O2 and H2O2/CaCl2 agents, and via thermal oxidation in the presence of Ar and Ar/H2O2. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy have been used to structurally characterize the produced materials. The morphology changes on the titanium alloy surface were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The bioactivity of the samples has been estimated by the analysis of the produced titania coatings’ biocompatibility, and by the determination of their ability to reduce bacterial biofilm formation. The photoactivity of the produced nanocoatings was also analyzed, in order to determine the possibility of using titania coated implant surfaces in the sterilization process of implants. Photocatalytic activity was estimated using the methylene blue photodegradation kinetics, in the presence of UV light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle Nanofibrous Silver-Coated Polymeric Scaffolds with Tunable Electrical Properties
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 63; doi:10.3390/nano7030063
Received: 2 January 2017 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Electrospun micro- and nanofibrous poly(glycerol sebacate)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS-PCL) substrates have been extensively used as scaffolds for engineered tissues due to their desirable mechanical properties and their tunable degradability. In this study, we fabricated micro/nanofibrous scaffolds from a PGS-PCL composite using a standard electrospinning approach
[...] Read more.
Electrospun micro- and nanofibrous poly(glycerol sebacate)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS-PCL) substrates have been extensively used as scaffolds for engineered tissues due to their desirable mechanical properties and their tunable degradability. In this study, we fabricated micro/nanofibrous scaffolds from a PGS-PCL composite using a standard electrospinning approach and then coated them with silver (Ag) using a custom radio frequency (RF) sputtering method. The Ag coating formed an electrically conductive layer around the fibers and decreased the pore size. The thickness of the Ag coating could be controlled, thereby tailoring the conductivity of the substrate. The flexible, stretchable patches formed excellent conformal contact with surrounding tissues and possessed excellent pattern-substrate fidelity. In vitro studies confirmed the platform’s biocompatibility and biodegradability. Finally, the potential controlled release of the Ag coating from the composite fibrous scaffolds could be beneficial for many clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Porous Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Scaffold for Bone Regeneration
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 46; doi:10.3390/nano7020046
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
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Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of attention for the biological and medical science fields because of their characteristic physical and biological properties. In this study, we investigated the capacity of the 3D porous CNT scaffold (CNT porous block; CNTp) for
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of attention for the biological and medical science fields because of their characteristic physical and biological properties. In this study, we investigated the capacity of the 3D porous CNT scaffold (CNT porous block; CNTp) for bone regenerative medicine. Surface observations using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), crystal depositions on the surface of CNTps immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF), and evaluations of protein adsorption and controlled releasing were conducted to assess physical properties. The cell proliferation and cell morphology were observed using SEM and fluorescent microscopy. CNTps were implanted into critical-size mouse calvarial defects and evaluated for their osteoconductive ability and in vivo controlled release of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2). Interconnected porous HA ceramics (IP-CHAs) were used for comparison. CNTps have multiporous structures with interporous connections with networks of multiwalled CNTs. Crystals containing calcium and phosphate were deposited in CNTps and on the surface of the CNT networks by immersing CNTps in SBF. CNTps adsorbed more significantly and released protein more gradually than IP-CHAs. Preosteoblasts seeded onto CNTps filled pores with stretched actin filaments and filopodia. Compared with IP-CHAs, CNTps showed significantly higher cell proliferation, better osteoconduction, and more bone generation with rhBMP-2. In this study, CNTps demonstrated good osteoconductive ability, cell attachment and proliferation capacity, and growth factor retaining ability. CNTps have the potential not only as artificial bones for the treatment of bone defects, but also as scaffolds for regenerative medicine using tissue engineering approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Production and Status of Bacterial Cellulose in Biomedical Engineering
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 257; doi:10.3390/nano7090257
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly pure and crystalline material generated by aerobic bacteria, which has received significant interest due to its unique physiochemical characteristics in comparison with plant cellulose. BC, alone or in combination with different components (e.g., biopolymers and nanoparticles), can
[...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly pure and crystalline material generated by aerobic bacteria, which has received significant interest due to its unique physiochemical characteristics in comparison with plant cellulose. BC, alone or in combination with different components (e.g., biopolymers and nanoparticles), can be used for a wide range of applications, such as medical products, electrical instruments, and food ingredients. In recent years, biomedical devices have gained important attention due to the increase in medical engineering products for wound care, regeneration of organs, diagnosis of diseases, and drug transportation. Bacterial cellulose has potential applications across several medical sectors and permits the development of innovative materials. This paper reviews the progress of related research, including overall information about bacterial cellulose, production by microorganisms, mechanisms as well as BC cultivation and its nanocomposites. The latest use of BC in the biomedical field is thoroughly discussed with its applications in both a pure and composite form. This paper concludes the further investigations of BC in the future that are required to make it marketable in vital biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Application)
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