Special Issue "Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefano Leporatti

CNR Nanotec-Istituto di Nanotecnologia, Via Monteroni, c/o Campus Ekotecne, 73100 Lecce (LE), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-083-231-9829
Interests: nanomedicine; cytomechanics; drug delivery; scanning force microscopy; polymer nanocapsules; halloysite clay nanotubes; drug nanocolloids; nano-micelles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials, “Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery”, focuses on new development of tailored nano-systems for targeted drug delivery.

Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field where nanotechnology, nanoscience and nanoengineering interact with life sciences. It is expected to lead to the development of novel nanosystems, drugs and other applications for diagnosis and therapy. Furthermore nanoparticulates drug delivery are new attractive vehicles for transport and release drug on a targeted site.

This Special Issue will highlight on novel nanocolloids like magnetic nanoparticles, nanomicelles, nanoliposomes, nanocapsules and nanoclays, stimulating novel interests and ideas in research groups involved in the development of novel nanotools within the different areas of nanomaterials. The publication of original articles will contribute to the scientific progress in the area of personalized medicine and further stimulate the entering into clinical praxis of such new nanosystems.

  • Nanocolloids
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoclays
  • Nanoliposomes
  • Nanomicelles
  • Nanocapsules
  • Drug Delivery

Prof. Stefano Leporatti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle MIL-100(Al) Gels as an Excellent Platform Loaded with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride for pH-Triggered Drug Release and Anticancer Effect
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060446
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Slow and controlled release systems for drugs have attracted increasing interest recently. A highly efficient metal-organic gel (MOGs) drug delivery carrier, i.e., MIL-100(Al) gel, has been fabricated by a facile, low cost, and environmentally friendly one-pot process. The unique structure of MIL-100(Al) gels
[...] Read more.
Slow and controlled release systems for drugs have attracted increasing interest recently. A highly efficient metal-organic gel (MOGs) drug delivery carrier, i.e., MIL-100(Al) gel, has been fabricated by a facile, low cost, and environmentally friendly one-pot process. The unique structure of MIL-100(Al) gels has led to a high loading efficiency (620 mg/g) towards doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as a kind of anticancer drug. DOX-loaded MOGs exhibited high stability under physiological conditions and sustained release capacity of DOX for up to three days (under acidic environments). They further showed sustained drug release behavior and excellent antitumor effects in in vitro experiments on HeLa cells, in contrast with the extremely low biotoxicity of MOGs. Our work provides a promising way for anticancer therapy by utilizing this MOGs-based drug delivery system as an efficient and safe vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Easy Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped SPIONs
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060430
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
The exceptional magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) make them promising materials for biomedical applications like hyperthermia, drug targeting and imaging. Easy preparation of SPIONs with the controllable, well-defined properties is a key factor of their practical application. In this work,
[...] Read more.
The exceptional magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) make them promising materials for biomedical applications like hyperthermia, drug targeting and imaging. Easy preparation of SPIONs with the controllable, well-defined properties is a key factor of their practical application. In this work, we report a simple synthesis of Ho-doped SPIONs by the co-precipitation route, with controlled size, shape and magnetic properties. To investigate the influence of the ions ratio on the nanoparticles’ properties, multiple techniques were used. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the crystallographic structure, indicating formation of an Fe3O4 core doped with holmium. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the correlation of the crystallites’ shape and size with the experimental conditions, pointing to critical holmium content around 5% for the preparation of uniformly shaped grains, while larger holmium content leads to uniaxial growth with a prism shape. Studies of the magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles show that magnetization varies with changes in the initial Ho3+ ions percentage during precipitation, while below 5% of Ho in doped Fe3O4 is relatively stable and sufficient for biomedicine applications. The characterization of prepared nanoparticles suggests that co-precipitation is a simple and efficient technique for the synthesis of superparamagnetic, Ho-doped SPIONs for hyperthermia application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescence and Cytotoxicity of Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots Stabilized on Clay Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060391
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 26 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Quantum dots (QD) are widely used for cellular labeling due to enhanced brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and multicolor light emissions. CdS and CdxZn1xS nanoparticles with sizes of 6–8 nm were synthesized via a ligand assisted technique inside
[...] Read more.
Quantum dots (QD) are widely used for cellular labeling due to enhanced brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and multicolor light emissions. CdS and CdxZn1xS nanoparticles with sizes of 6–8 nm were synthesized via a ligand assisted technique inside and outside of 50 nm diameter halloysite clay nanotubes (QD were immobilized on the tube’s surface). The halloysite–QD composites were tested by labeling human skin fibroblasts and prostate cancer cells. In human cell cultures, halloysite–QD systems were internalized by living cells, and demonstrated intense and stable fluorescence combined with pronounced nanotube light scattering. The best signal stability was observed for QD that were synthesized externally on the amino-grafted halloysite. The best cell viability was observed for CdxZn1xS QD immobilized onto the azine-grafted halloysite. The possibility to use QD clay nanotube core-shell nanoarchitectures for the intracellular labeling was demonstrated. A pronounced scattering and fluorescence by halloysite–QD systems allows for their promising usage as markers for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Interaction of Poly(l-lysine)/Polysaccharide Complex Nanoparticles with Human Vascular Endothelial Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060358
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Angiogenesis plays an important role in both soft and hard tissue regeneration, which can be modulated by therapeutic drugs. If nanoparticles (NP) are used as vectors for drug delivery, they have to encounter endothelial cells (EC) lining the vascular lumen, if applied intravenously.
[...] Read more.
Angiogenesis plays an important role in both soft and hard tissue regeneration, which can be modulated by therapeutic drugs. If nanoparticles (NP) are used as vectors for drug delivery, they have to encounter endothelial cells (EC) lining the vascular lumen, if applied intravenously. Herein the interaction of unloaded polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (PECNP) composed of cationic poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and various anionic polysaccharides with human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was analyzed. In particular PECNP were tested for their cell adhesive properties, their cellular uptake and intracellular localization considering composition and net charge. PECNP may form a platform for both cell coating and drug delivery. PECNP, composed of PLL in combination with the polysaccharides dextran sulfate (DS), cellulose sulfate (CS) or heparin (HEP), either unlabeled or labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and either with positive or negative net charge were prepared. PECNP were applied to human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in both, the volume phase and immobilized phase at model substrates like tissue culture dishes. The attachment of PECNP to the cell surface, their intracellular uptake, and effects on cell proliferation and growth behavior were determined. Immobilized PECNP reduced attachment of HUVEC, most prominently the systems PLL/HEP and PLL/DS. A small percentage of immobilized PECNP was taken up by cells during adhesion. PECNP in the volume phase showed no effect of the net charge sign and only minor effects of the composition on the binding and uptake of PECNP at HUVEC. PECNP were stored in endosomal vesicles in a cumulative manner without apparent further processing. During mitosis, internalized PECNP were almost equally distributed among the dividing cells. Both, in the volume phase and immobilized at the surface, PECNP composed of PLL/HEP and PLL/DS clearly reduced cell proliferation of HUVEC, however without an apparent cytotoxic effect, while PLL/CS composition showed minor impairment. PECNP have an anti-adhesive effect on HUVEC and are taken up by endothelial cells which may negatively influence the proliferation rate of HUVEC. The negative effects were less obvious with the composition PLL/CS. Since uptake and binding for PLL/HEP was more efficient than for PLL/DS, PECNP of PLL/HEP may be used to deliver growth factors to endothelial cells during vascularization of bone reconstitution material, whereas those of PLL/CS may have an advantage for substituting biomimetic bone scaffold material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Graphene Oxide for Dual Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin and Photothermal Therapy
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040193
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
To develop a pH-sensitive dual targeting magnetic nanocarrier for chemo-phototherapy in cancer treatment, we prepared magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) by depositing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles on graphene oxide (GO) through chemical co-precipitation. MGO was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cetuximab
[...] Read more.
To develop a pH-sensitive dual targeting magnetic nanocarrier for chemo-phototherapy in cancer treatment, we prepared magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) by depositing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles on graphene oxide (GO) through chemical co-precipitation. MGO was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cetuximab (CET, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody) to obtain MGO-PEG-CET. Since EGFR was highly expressed on the tumor cell surface, MGO-PEG-CET was used for dual targeted delivery an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The physico-chemical properties of MGO-PEG-CET were fully characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and superconducting quantum interference device. Drug loading experiments revealed that DOX adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm with a maximal drug loading capacity of 6.35 mg/mg, while DOX release was pH-dependent with more DOX released at pH 5.5 than pH 7.4. Using quantum-dots labeled nanocarriers and confocal microscopy, intracellular uptakes of MGO-PEG-CET by high EGFR-expressing CT-26 murine colorectal cells was confirmed to be more efficient than MGO. This cellular uptake could be inhibited by pre-incubation with CET, which confirmed the receptor-mediated endocytosis of MGO-PEG-CET. Magnetic targeted killing of CT-26 was demonstrated in vitro through magnetic guidance of MGO-PEG-CET/DOX, while the photothermal effect could be confirmed in vivo and in vitro after exposure of MGO-PEG-CET to near-infrared (NIR) laser light. In addition, the biocompatibility tests indicated MGO-PEG-CET showed no cytotoxicity toward fibroblasts and elicited minimum hemolysis. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of MGO-PEG-CET/DOX toward CT-26 cells was 1.48 µg/mL, which was lower than that of MGO-PEG/DOX (2.64 µg/mL). The IC50 value could be further reduced to 1.17 µg/mL after combining with photothermal therapy by NIR laser light exposure. Using subcutaneously implanted CT-26 cells in BALB/c mice, in vivo anti-tumor studies indicated the relative tumor volumes at day 14 were 12.1 for control (normal saline), 10.1 for DOX, 9.5 for MGO-PEG-CET/DOX, 5.8 for MGO-PEG-CET/DOX + magnet, and 0.42 for MGO-PEG-CET/DOX + magnet + laser. Therefore, the dual targeting MGO-PEG-CET/DOX could be suggested as an effective drug delivery system for anticancer therapy, which showed a 29-fold increase in therapeutic efficacy compared with control by combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Transferrin Functionalized Liposomes Loading Dopamine HCl: Development and Permeability Studies across an In Vitro Model of Human Blood–Brain Barrier
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030178
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The transport of dopamine across the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for the management of Parkinson’s disease. The employment of central nervous system targeted ligands functionalized nanocarriers could be a valid tactic to overcome this obstacle and avoid undesirable side effects. In
[...] Read more.
The transport of dopamine across the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for the management of Parkinson’s disease. The employment of central nervous system targeted ligands functionalized nanocarriers could be a valid tactic to overcome this obstacle and avoid undesirable side effects. In this work, transferrin functionalized dopamine-loaded liposomes were made by a modified dehydration–rehydration technique from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcoline, cholesterol and 1,2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(poly(ethylene glycol)-2000)]. The physical features of the prepared liposomes were established with successive determination of their endothelial permeability across an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, constituted by human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). Functionalized dopamine-loaded liposomes with encapsulation efficiency more than 35% were made with sizes in a range around 180 nm, polydispersity indices of 0.2, and positive zeta potential values (+7.5 mV). Their stability and drug release kinetics were also evaluated. The apparent permeability (Pe) values of encapsulated dopamine in functionalized and unfunctionalized liposomes showed that transferrin functionalized nanocarriers could represent appealing non-toxic candidates for brain delivery, thus improving benefits and decreasing complications to patients subjected to L-dopa chronical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Delivery of Therapeutic siRNA into Glioblastoma Cells Using Dendrimer-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated with β-Cyclodextrin
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030131
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We describe a safe and highly effective non-viral vector system based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for improved delivery small interfering RNA (siRNA) to glioblastoma cells. In our approach, we utilized amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers partially grafted with β-CD
[...] Read more.
We describe a safe and highly effective non-viral vector system based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for improved delivery small interfering RNA (siRNA) to glioblastoma cells. In our approach, we utilized amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers partially grafted with β-CD as a nanoreactor to entrap Au NPs. The acquired β-CD-modified Au DENPs (Au DENPs-β-CD) were complexed with two different types of therapeutic siRNA (B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) siRNA and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA). The siRNA compression ability of the Au DENPs-β-CD was evaluated by various methods. The cytocompatibility of the vector/siRNA polyplexes was assessed by viability assay of cells. The siRNA transfection capability of the formed Au DENPs-β-CD vector was evaluated by flow cytometric assay of the cellular uptake of the polyplexes and Western blot assays of the Bcl-2 and VEGF protein expression. Our data reveals that the formed Au DENPs-β-CD carrier enables efficiently delivery of siRNA to glioma cells, has good cytocompatibility once complexed with the siRNA, and enables enhanced gene silencing to inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 and VEGF proteins. The developed Au DENPs-β-CD vector may be used for efficient siRNA delivery to different biosystems for therapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessCommunication Inihibition of Glycolysis by Using a Micro/Nano-Lipid Bromopyruvic Chitosan Carrier as a Promising Tool to Improve Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010034
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glucose consumption in many types of cancer cells, in particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was followed completely by over-expression of type II hexokinase (HKII). This evidence has been used in modern pharmacotherapy to discover therapeutic target against glycolysis in cancer cells. Bromopyruvate (BrPA) exhibits
[...] Read more.
Glucose consumption in many types of cancer cells, in particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was followed completely by over-expression of type II hexokinase (HKII). This evidence has been used in modern pharmacotherapy to discover therapeutic target against glycolysis in cancer cells. Bromopyruvate (BrPA) exhibits antagonist property against HKII and can be used to inhibit glycolysis. However, the clinical application of BrPA is mostly combined with inhibition effect for healthy cells particularly erythrocytes. Our strategy is to encapsulate BrPA in a selected vehicle, without any leakage of BrPA out of vehicle in blood stream. This structure has been constructed from chitosan embedded into oleic acid layer and then coated by dual combination of folic acid (FA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). With FA as specific ligand for cancer folate receptor and BSA that can be an easy binding for hepatocytes, they can raise the potential selection of carrier system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Intratumoral Delivery of Doxorubicin on Folate-Conjugated Graphene Oxide by In-Situ Forming Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Breast Cancer Therapy
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(11), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110388
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By taking advantage of the pH-sensitive drug release property of graphene oxide (GO) after intracellular uptake, we prepared folic acid (FA)-conjugated GO (GOFA) for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). GOFA-DOX was further encapsulated in an injectable in-situ forming thermo-sensitive hyaluronic
[...] Read more.
By taking advantage of the pH-sensitive drug release property of graphene oxide (GO) after intracellular uptake, we prepared folic acid (FA)-conjugated GO (GOFA) for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). GOFA-DOX was further encapsulated in an injectable in-situ forming thermo-sensitive hyaluronic acid-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HACPN) hydrogel for intratumoral delivery of DOX. As the degradation time of HACPN could be extended up to 3 weeks, intratumoral delivery of GOFA-DOX/HACPN could provide controlled and targeted delivery of DOX through slow degradation HACPN and subsequent cellular uptake of released GOFA-DOX by tumor cells through interactions of GOFA with folate receptors on the tumor cell’s surface. GOFA nano-carrier and HACPN hydrogel were first characterized for the physico-chemical properties. The drug loading experiments indicated the best preparation condition of GOFA-DOX was by reacting 0.1 mg GOFA with 2 mg DOX. GOFA-DOX showed pH-responsive drug release with ~5 times more DOX released at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4 while only limited DOX was released from GOFA-DOX/HACPN at pH 7.4. Intracellular uptake of GOFA by endocytosis and release of DOX from GOFA-DOX in vitro could be confirmed from transmission electron microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The targeting effect of FA was revealed when intracellular uptake of GOFA was blocked by excess FA. This resulted in enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity as revealed from the lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of GOFA-DOX (7.3 μg/mL) compared with that of DOX (32.5 μg/mL) and GO-DOX (10 μg/mL). The flow cytometry analysis indicated higher apoptosis rates for cells treated with GOFA-DOX (30%) compared with DOX (8%) and GO-DOX (11%). Animal studies were carried out with subcutaneously implanted MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice and subject to intratumoral administration of drugs. The relative tumor volumes of control (saline) and GOFA-DOX/HACPN groups at day 21 were 2.17 and 1.79 times that at day 0 with no significant difference. In comparison, the relative tumor volumes of treatment groups at the same time were significantly different at 1.02, 0.67 and 0.48 times for DOX, GOFA-DOX and GOFA-DOX/HACPN groups, respectively. The anti-tumor efficacy was also supported by images from an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) using MCF-7 cells transfected with luciferase (MCF-7/Luc). Furthermore, tissue biopsy examination and blood analysis indicated that intratumoral delivery of DOX using GOFA-DOX/HACPN did not elicit acute toxicity. Taken together, GOFA-DOX/HACPN could be deemed as a safe and efficient intratumoral drug delivery system for breast cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Increased Loading, Efficacy and Sustained Release of Silibinin, a Poorly Soluble Drug Using Hydrophobically-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(11), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110379
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB), a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using
[...] Read more.
Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB), a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP) system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay. Physicochemical features of the nanoparticles were studied using the TNBS assay, and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analyses. The FTIR profile and electron microscopy correlated the successful formation of pCNP and pCNP-SLB as nano-sized particles, while Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) results exhibited an expansion in size between pCNP and pCNP-SLB to accommodate the drug within its particle core. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles, a Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay was subsequently performed using the A549 lung cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity assays exhibited an enhanced efficacy of SLB when delivered by CNP and pCNP. Interestingly, controlled release delivery of SLB was achieved using the pCNP-SLB system, conferring higher cytotoxic effects and lower IC50 values in 72-h treatments compared to CNP-SLB, which was attributed to the hydrophobic modification of the CNP system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation, Characterization, and Preliminary In Vitro Testing of Nanoceria-Loaded Liposomes
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7090276
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), well known for their pro- and antioxidant features, have been recently proposed for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, interaction between nanoceria and biological molecules such as proteins and lipids, short blood circulation time,
[...] Read more.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), well known for their pro- and antioxidant features, have been recently proposed for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, interaction between nanoceria and biological molecules such as proteins and lipids, short blood circulation time, and the need of a targeted delivery to desired sites are some aspects that require strong attention for further progresses in the clinical application of these nanoparticles. The aim of this work is the encapsulation of nanoceria into a liposomal formulation in order to improve their therapeutic potentialities. After the preparation through a reverse-phase evaporation method, size, Z-potential, morphology, and loading efficiency of nanoceria-loaded liposomes were investigated. Finally, preliminary in vitro studies were performed to test cell uptake efficiency and preserved antioxidant activity. Nanoceria-loaded liposomes showed a good colloidal stability, an excellent biocompatibility, and strong antioxidant properties due to the unaltered activity of the entrapped nanoceria. With these results, the possibility of exploiting liposomes as carriers for cerium oxide nanoparticles is demonstrated here for the first time, thus opening exciting new opportunities for in vivo applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle Gadolinium-Doped Gallic Acid-Zinc/Aluminium-Layered Double Hydroxide/Gold Theranostic Nanoparticles for a Bimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Drug Delivery System
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7090244
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed gadolinium-based theranostic nanoparticles for co-delivery of drug and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent using Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide as the nanocarrier platform, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA) as therapeutic agent, and Gd(NO3)3 as diagnostic
[...] Read more.
We have developed gadolinium-based theranostic nanoparticles for co-delivery of drug and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent using Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide as the nanocarrier platform, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA) as therapeutic agent, and Gd(NO3)3 as diagnostic agent. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were grown on the system to support the contrast for MRI imaging. The nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as Hi-TEM, XRD, ICP-ES. Kinetic release study of the GA from the nanoparticles showed about 70% of GA was released over a period of 72 h. The in vitro cell viability test for the nanoparticles showed relatively low toxicity to human cell lines (3T3) and improved toxicity on cancerous cell lines (HepG2). A preliminary contrast property test of the nanoparticles, tested on a 3 Tesla MRI machine at various concentrations of GAGZAu and water (as a reference) indicates that the nanoparticles have a promising dual diagnostic and therapeutic features to further develop a better future for clinical remedy for cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle High Ultraviolet Absorption in Colloidal Gallium Nanoparticles Prepared from Thermal Evaporation
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7070172
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
New methods for the production of colloidal Ga nanoparticles (GaNPs) are introduced based on the evaporation of gallium on expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layer. The nanoparticles can be prepared in aqueous or organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran in order to be used
[...] Read more.
New methods for the production of colloidal Ga nanoparticles (GaNPs) are introduced based on the evaporation of gallium on expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layer. The nanoparticles can be prepared in aqueous or organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran in order to be used in different sensing applications. The particles had a quasi mono-modal distribution with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm, and their aggregation status depended on the solvent nature. Compared to common chemical synthesis, our method assures higher yield with the possibility of tailoring particles size by adjusting the deposition time. The GaNPs have been studied by spectrophotometry to obtain the absorption spectra. The colloidal solutions exhibit strong plasmonic absorption in the ultra violet (UV) region around 280 nm, whose width and intensity mainly depend on the nanoparticles dimensions and their aggregation state. With regard to the colloidal GaNPs flocculate behavior, the water solvent case has been investigated for different pH values, showing UV-visible absorption because of the formation of NPs clusters. Using discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method simulations, a close connection between the UV absorption and NPs with a diameter smaller than ~40 nm was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Silver Nanoparticles: Synthetic Routes, In Vitro Toxicity and Theranostic Applications for Cancer Disease
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050319
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
The large use of nanomaterials in many fields of application and commercial products highlights their potential toxicity on living organisms and the environment, despite their physico-chemical properties. Among these, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are involved in biomedical applications such as antibacterial agents, drug
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The large use of nanomaterials in many fields of application and commercial products highlights their potential toxicity on living organisms and the environment, despite their physico-chemical properties. Among these, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are involved in biomedical applications such as antibacterial agents, drug delivery vectors and theranostics agents. In this review, we explain the common synthesis routes of Ag NPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods, following their toxicity mechanism in cells. In particular, we analyzed the physiological cellular pathway perturbations in terms of oxidative stress induction, mitochondrial membrane potential alteration, cell death, apoptosis, DNA damage and cytokines secretion after Ag NPs exposure. In addition, their potential anti-cancer activity and theranostic applications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery)
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