Special Issue "Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Manh-Huong Phan

Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials; nanomagnetism; nanospintronics; nanobiosensors; biomedical applications of functional magnetic nanoparticles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functional magnetic nanoparticles and their biomedical applications, such as targeted drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic labeling, magnetic resonance imaging, and biosensing, have generated growing interest in the world. Research on nanoparticles forms an interdisciplinary science field that involves physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Creating nanoparticles with properties that fulfill all the requirements (e.g., high saturation magnetization, zero remanent magnetization, biocompatibility, and no toxicity to humans) represents an important but challenging task.

This Special Issue is aimed at featuring recent and new developments in synthesis, characterization, and applications of magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites. Gaining a thorough understanding of the properties of nanoparticles under various conditions (before and after bio-polymer coatings) and the performance of nanoparticle based bio-devices from high quality review and research articles, as published in this Special Issue, will help to move forward in their real world applications.

Prof. Dr. Manh-Huong Phan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles (synthesis and characterization)
  • Functionalization of nanoparticles
  • Toxicity of nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles for hyperthermia-based therapy
  • Nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery
  • Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging
  • Nanoparticles for diagnostics of cancer cells and biomolecules
  • Nanoparticles for bio-labeling and magnetic separation
  • Biosensors and biomedical devices

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Cationic Amylose Nanoparticles Used to Deliver Survivin-Small Interfering RNA for Gene Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(5), 110; doi:10.3390/nano7050110
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Amylose is a promising nanocarrier for gene delivery in terms of its good biocompatibility and high transfection efficiency. Small interfering RNA against survivin (survivin-siRNA) can cause tumor apoptosis by silencing a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific gene at the messenger RNA level. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Amylose is a promising nanocarrier for gene delivery in terms of its good biocompatibility and high transfection efficiency. Small interfering RNA against survivin (survivin-siRNA) can cause tumor apoptosis by silencing a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific gene at the messenger RNA level. In this study, we developed a new class of folate-functionalized, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded cationic amylose nanoparticles to deliver survivin-siRNA to HCC cells. The cellular uptake of nanocomplexes, cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and gene suppression mediated by siRNA-complexed nanoparticles were tested. The results demonstrated that folate-functionalized, SPIO-loaded cationic amylose nanoparticles can mediate a specific and safe cellular uptake of survivin-siRNA with high transfection efficiency, resulting in a robust survivin gene downregulation in HCC cells. The biocompatible complex of cationic amylose could be used as an efficient, rapid, and safe gene delivery vector. Upon SPIO loading, it holds a great promise as a theranostic carrier for gene therapy of HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles-Complexed Cationic Amylose for In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tracking of Transplanted Stem Cells in Stroke
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(5), 107; doi:10.3390/nano7050107
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cell-based therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy for acute ischemic stroke. In vivo tracking of therapeutic stem cells with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is imperative for better understanding cellular survival and migrational dynamics over time. In this study, we
[...] Read more.
Cell-based therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy for acute ischemic stroke. In vivo tracking of therapeutic stem cells with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is imperative for better understanding cellular survival and migrational dynamics over time. In this study, we develop a novel biocompatible nanocomplex (ASP-SPIONs) based on cationic amylose, by introducing spermine and the image label, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), to label MSCs. The capacity, efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the nanocomplex in transferring SPIONs into green fluorescence protein-modified MSCs were tested; and the performance of in vivo MRI tracking of the transplanted cells in acute ischemic stroke was determined. The results demonstrated that the new class of SPIONs-complexed nanoparticles based on biodegradable amylose can serve as a highly effective and safe carrier to transfer magnetic label into stem cells. A reliable tracking of transplanted stem cells in stroke was achieved by MRI up to 6 weeks, with the desirable therapeutic benefit of stem cells on stroke retained. With the advantages of a relatively low SPIONs concentration and a short labeling period, the biocompatible complex of cationic amylose with SPIONs is highly translatable for clinical application. It holds great promise in efficient, rapid, and safe labeling of stem cells for subsequent cellular MRI tracking in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Direct Laser Writing of Magneto-Photonic Sub-Microstructures for Prospective Applications in Biomedical Engineering
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(5), 105; doi:10.3390/nano7050105
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report on the fabrication of desired magneto-photonic devices by a low one-photon absorption (LOPA) direct laser writing (DLW) technique on a photocurable nanocomposite consisting of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and a commercial SU-8 photoresist. The magnetic nanocomposite was
[...] Read more.
We report on the fabrication of desired magneto-photonic devices by a low one-photon absorption (LOPA) direct laser writing (DLW) technique on a photocurable nanocomposite consisting of magnetite ( Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles and a commercial SU-8 photoresist. The magnetic nanocomposite was synthesized by mixing Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with different kinds of SU-8 photoresists. We demonstrated that the degree of dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the nanocomposite depended on the concentration of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, the viscosity of SU-8 resist, and the mixing time. By tuning these parameters, the most homogeneous magnetic nanocomposite was obtained with a concentration of about 2 wt % of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in SU-8 2005 photoresist for the mixing time of 20 days. The LOPA-based DLW technique was employed to fabricate on demand various magneto-photonic submicrometer structures, which are similar to those obtained without Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The magneto-photonic 2D and 3D structures with sizes as small as 150 nm were created. We demonstrated the strong magnetic field responses of the magneto-photonic nanostructures and their use as micro-actuators when immersed in a liquid solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle Assembly of Iron Oxide Nanocubes for Enhanced Cancer Hyperthermia and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(4), 72; doi:10.3390/nano7040072
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multiple formulations of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been proposed for enhancing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for increasing efficacy in thermal ablation therapies. However, insufficient accumulation at the disease site and low magnetic performance hamper the clinical application of IONPs.
[...] Read more.
Multiple formulations of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been proposed for enhancing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for increasing efficacy in thermal ablation therapies. However, insufficient accumulation at the disease site and low magnetic performance hamper the clinical application of IONPs. Here, 20 nm iron oxide nanocubes were assembled into larger nanoconstructs externally stabilized by a serum albumin coating. The resulting assemblies of nanocubes (ANCs) had an average diameter of 100 nm and exhibited transverse relaxivity (r2 = 678.9 ± 29.0 mM‒1·s‒1 at 1.41 T) and heating efficiency (specific absorption rate of 109.8 ± 12.8 W·g‒1 at 512 kHz and 10 kA·m‒1). In mice bearing glioblastoma multiforme tumors, Cy5.5-labeled ANCs allowed visualization of malignant masses via both near infrared fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging. Also, upon systemic administration of ANCs (5 mgFe·kg‒1), 30 min of daily exposure to alternating magnetic fields for three consecutive days was sufficient to halt tumor progression. This study demonstrates that intravascular administration of ANCs can effectively visualize and treat neoplastic masses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Magnetic Microfluidic Biosensors
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 171; doi:10.3390/nano7070171
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of portable biosening devices for the detection of biological entities such as biomolecules, pathogens, and cells has become extremely significant over the past years. Scientific research, driven by the promise for miniaturization and integration of complex laboratory equipment on inexpensive, reliable,
[...] Read more.
The development of portable biosening devices for the detection of biological entities such as biomolecules, pathogens, and cells has become extremely significant over the past years. Scientific research, driven by the promise for miniaturization and integration of complex laboratory equipment on inexpensive, reliable, and accurate devices, has successfully shifted several analytical and diagnostic methods to the submillimeter scale. The miniaturization process was made possible with the birth of microfluidics, a technology that could confine, manipulate, and mix very small volumes of liquids on devices integrated on standard silicon technology chips. Such devices are then directly translating the presence of these entities into an electronic signal that can be read out with a portable instrumentation. For the aforementioned tasks, the use of magnetic markers (magnetic particles—MPs—functionalized with ligands) in combination with the application of magnetic fields is being strongly investigated by research groups worldwide. The greatest merits of using magnetic fields are that they can be applied either externally or from integrated microconductors and they can be well-tuned by adjusting the applied current on the microconductors. Moreover, the magnetic markers can be manipulated inside microfluidic channels by high gradient magnetic fields that can in turn be detected by magnetic sensors. All the above make this technology an ideal candidate for the development of such microfluidic biosensors. In this review, focus is given only to very recent advances in biosensors that use microfluidics in combination with magnetic sensors and magnetic markers/nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessReview Magnetic Nanoparticles for Antibiotics Detection
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(6), 119; doi:10.3390/nano7060119
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Widespread use of antibiotics has led to pollution of waterways, potentially creating resistance among freshwater bacterial communities. Microorganisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics (superbug) have dramatically increased over the last decades. The presence of antibiotics in waters, in food and beverages in both
[...] Read more.
Widespread use of antibiotics has led to pollution of waterways, potentially creating resistance among freshwater bacterial communities. Microorganisms resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics (superbug) have dramatically increased over the last decades. The presence of antibiotics in waters, in food and beverages in both their un-metabolized and metabolized forms are of interest for humans. This is due to daily exposure in small quantities, that, when accumulated, could lead to development of drug resistance to antibiotics, or multiply the risk of allergic reaction. Conventional analytical methods used to quantify antibiotics are relatively expensive and generally require long analysis time associated with the difficulties to perform field analyses. In this context, electrochemical and optical based sensing devices are of interest, offering great potentials for a broad range of analytical applications. This review will focus on the application of magnetic nanoparticles in the design of different analytical methods, mainly sensors, used for the detection of antibiotics in different matrices (human fluids, the environmental, food and beverages samples). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Exchange Bias Effects in Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticle Systems
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(11), 221; doi:10.3390/nano6110221
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (6960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis
[...] Read more.
The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis provide a unique opportunity to explore EB in a variety of iron oxide-based nanostructures ranging from core/shell to hollow and hybrid composite nanoparticles. Experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies have shed light on the roles of interface and surface spins in these nanosystems. This review paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of the EB and related phenomena in iron oxide-based nanoparticle systems, knowledge of which is essential to tune the anisotropic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled nanoparticle systems for potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report Oscillating Magnet Array−Based Nanomagnetic Gene Transfection: A Valuable Tool for Molecular Neurobiology Studies
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 28; doi:10.3390/nano7020028
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
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Abstract
To develop treatments for neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical to understand the biology and function of neurons in both normal and diseased states. Molecular studies of neurons involve the delivery of small biomolecules into cultured neurons via transfection to study genetic variants. However,
[...] Read more.
To develop treatments for neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical to understand the biology and function of neurons in both normal and diseased states. Molecular studies of neurons involve the delivery of small biomolecules into cultured neurons via transfection to study genetic variants. However, as cultured primary neurons are sensitive to temperature change, stress, and shifts in pH, these factors make biomolecule delivery difficult, particularly non-viral delivery. Herein we used oscillating nanomagnetic gene transfection to successfully transfect SH-SY5Y cells as well as primary hippocampal and cortical neurons on different days in vitro. This novel technique has been used to effectively deliver genetic material into various cell types, resulting in high transfection efficiency and viability. From these observations and other related studies, we suggest that oscillating nanomagnetic gene transfection is an effective method for gene delivery into hard-to-transfect neuronal cell types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine)
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