Special Issue "Nanoengineered Interfaces, Coatings and Structures by Plasma Techniques"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Krasimir Vasilev

Mawson Institute and School of Engineering, Mawson Lakes Campus, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095, Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 8302 5697
Fax: +61 8 8302 5689
Interests: Antibacterial coatings; biomaterials; medical devices; plasma polymers; surface modification; biointerfaces; drug delivery; nanomaterials
Guest Editor
Dr. Melanie Ramiasa

Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes Campus, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095, Australia
E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 8302 3518
Interests: material science; surface chemistry; nanorough biomaterials; nanocomposite; plasma polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last couple of decades have brought exiting breakthroughs in utilization of plasma processes in generation of diverse range of nanomaterials and nanoengineered coatings and interfaces. Examples include nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanostructured coatings for applications in numerous areas of everyday life ranging from medical devices to electronics. Many of these materials, coatings and interfaces are unique and cannot be derived by conventional means. This special issue aims to bring together the latest advances in the fields of plasma nanoengineering of interfaces, coatings and structures and their application in various fields. In addition, the issue aims at highlighting current challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome to fully understand the fundamental physical, chemical and physicochemical phenomena underpinning the plasma facilitated processes for fabrication and modification of materials and interfaces. Further, this special issue aims to provide guidance to researchers and engineers working in the field and inform the community of the future directions.
We invite investigators to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that will inspire research towards the next generation of plasma derived nanoscale interfaces, coatings and structures. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:
-    Plasma synthesis of nanomaterials
-    Nanoscale plasma polymer coating
-    Plasma assisted surface modification
-    Plasma nano texturing of surfaces
-    Applications of plasma derived nanomaterials, coatings and interfaces in different fields
-    Modeling of plasma facilitated process for fabrication of nanomaterials

Prof. Dr. Krasimir Vasilev
Dr. Melanie Ramiasa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plasma nanomaterials
  • plasma polymerization
  • plasma nanosynthesis
  • plasma deposition
  • plasma etching

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Retention of Antibacterial Activity in Geranium Plasma Polymer Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 270; doi:10.3390/nano7090270
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Bacterial colonisation of biomedical devices demands novel antibacterial coatings. Plasma-enabled treatment is an established technique for selective modification of physicochemical characteristics of the surface and deposition of polymer thin films. We investigated the retention of inherent antibacterial activity in geranium based plasma polymer
[...] Read more.
Bacterial colonisation of biomedical devices demands novel antibacterial coatings. Plasma-enabled treatment is an established technique for selective modification of physicochemical characteristics of the surface and deposition of polymer thin films. We investigated the retention of inherent antibacterial activity in geranium based plasma polymer thin films. Attachment and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli was significantly reduced on the surfaces of samples fabricated at 10 W radio frequency (RF) power, compared to that of control or films fabricated at higher input power. This was attributed to lower contact angle and retention of original chemical functionality in the polymer films fabricated under low input power conditions. The topography of all surfaces was uniform and smooth, with surface roughness of 0.18 and 0.69 nm for films fabricated at 10 W and 100 W, respectively. Hardness and elastic modules of films increased with input power. Independent of input power, films were optically transparent within the visible wavelength range, with the main absorption at ~290 nm and optical band gap of ~3.6 eV. These results suggest that geranium extract-derived polymers may potentially be used as antibacterial coatings for contact lenses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Silver Nanoparticles PEALD Process on the Surface of 1-D Titania Coatings
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 193; doi:10.3390/nano7070193
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silver nanoparticles on the surface of 1-D titania coatings, such as nanotubes (TNT) and nanoneedles (TNN), has been carried out. The formation of TNT and TNN layers enriched with dispersed silver particles of strictly defined sizes
[...] Read more.
Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silver nanoparticles on the surface of 1-D titania coatings, such as nanotubes (TNT) and nanoneedles (TNN), has been carried out. The formation of TNT and TNN layers enriched with dispersed silver particles of strictly defined sizes and the estimation of their bioactivity was the aim of our investigations. The structure and the morphology of produced materials were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM). Their bioactivity and potential usefulness in the modification of implants surface have been estimated on the basis of the fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation assays, and on the basis of the determination of their antibacterial activity. The cumulative silver release profiles have been checked with the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), in order to exclude potential cytotoxicity of silver decorated systems. Among the studied nanocomposite samples, TNT coatings, prepared at 3, 10, 12 V and enriched with silver nanoparticles produced during 25 cycles of PEALD, revealed suitable biointegration properties and may actively counteract the formation of bacterial biofilm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Erosion Behavior and Particle Contamination in Mass-Production CF4/O2 Plasma Chambers Using Y2O3 and YF3 Protective Coatings
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 183; doi:10.3390/nano7070183
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Yttrium fluoride (YF3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) protective coatings prepared using an atmospheric plasma spraying technique were used to investigate the relationship between surface erosion behaviors and their nanoparticle generation under high-density plasma (1012–1013
[...] Read more.
Yttrium fluoride (YF3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) protective coatings prepared using an atmospheric plasma spraying technique were used to investigate the relationship between surface erosion behaviors and their nanoparticle generation under high-density plasma (1012–1013 cm−3) etching. As examined by transmission electron microscopy, the Y2O3 and YF3 coatings become oxyfluorinated after exposure to the plasma, wherein the yttrium oxyfluoride film formation was observed on the surface with a thickness of 5.2 and 6.8 nm, respectively. The difference in the oxyfluorination of Y2O3 and YF3 coatings could be attributed to Y–F and Y–O bonding energies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that a strongly fluorinated bonding (Y–F bond) was obtained on the etched surface of the YF3 coating. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanoparticles on the 12-inch wafer are composed of etchant gases and Y2O3. These results indicate that the YF3 coating is a more erosion-resistant material, resulting in fewer contamination particles compared with the Y2O3 coating. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Precursor on Antifouling Efficacy of Vertically-Oriented Graphene Nanosheets
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 170; doi:10.3390/nano7070170
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antifouling efficacy of graphene nanowalls, i.e., substrate-bound vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets, has been demonstrated against biofilm-forming Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Where graphene nanowalls are typically prepared using costly high-temperature synthesis from high-purity carbon precursors, large-scale applications demand efficient, low-cost processes. The advancement of plasma
[...] Read more.
Antifouling efficacy of graphene nanowalls, i.e., substrate-bound vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets, has been demonstrated against biofilm-forming Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Where graphene nanowalls are typically prepared using costly high-temperature synthesis from high-purity carbon precursors, large-scale applications demand efficient, low-cost processes. The advancement of plasma enabled synthesis techniques in the production of nanomaterials has opened a novel and effective method for converting low-cost natural waste resources to produce nanomaterials with a wide range of applications. Through this work, we report the rapid reforming of sugarcane bagasse, a low-value by-product from sugarcane industry, into high-quality vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C. Electron microscopy showed that graphene nanowalls fabricated from methane were significantly more effective at preventing surface attachment of Gram-negative rod-shaped Escherichia coli compared to bagasse-derived graphene, with both surfaces showing antifouling efficacy comparable to copper. Attachment of Gram-positive coccal Staphylococcus aureus was lower on the surfaces of both types of graphene compared to that on copper, with bagasse-derived graphene being particularly effective. Toxicity to planktonic bacteria estimated as a reduction in colony-forming units as a result of sample exposure showed that both graphenes effectively retarded cell replication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Surface Modification and Damage of MeV-Energy Heavy Ion Irradiation on Gold Nanowires
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(5), 108; doi:10.3390/nano7050108
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Gold nanowires with diameters ranging from 20 to 90 nm were fabricated by the electrochemical deposition technique in etched ion track polycarbonate templates and were then irradiated by Xe and Kr ions with the energy in MeV range. The surface modification of nanowires
[...] Read more.
Gold nanowires with diameters ranging from 20 to 90 nm were fabricated by the electrochemical deposition technique in etched ion track polycarbonate templates and were then irradiated by Xe and Kr ions with the energy in MeV range. The surface modification of nanowires was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations. Different craters with and without protrusion on the gold nanowires were analyzed, and the two corresponding formation mechanisms, i.e., plastic flow and micro-explosion, were investigated. In addition, the sputtered gold nanoparticles caused by ion irradiation were studied and it was confirmed that the surface damage produced in gold nanowires was increased as the diameter of the nanowires decreased. It was also found that heavy ion irradiation can also create stacking fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) in gold nanowires and three different SFTs were confirmed in irradiated nanowires. A statistical analysis of the size distribution of SFTs in gold nanowires proved that the average size distribution of SFT was positively related to the nuclear stopping power of incident ions, i.e., the higher nuclear stopping power of incident ions could generate SFT with a larger average size in gold nanowires. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Silicon Nanobelts and Nanopillars by Soft Lithography for Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Photonic Surfaces
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(5), 109; doi:10.3390/nano7050109
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
PDF Full-text (8945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Soft lithography allows for the simple and low-cost fabrication of nanopatterns with different shapes and sizes over large areas. However, the resolution and the aspect ratio of the nanostructures fabricated by soft lithography are limited by the depth and the physical properties of
[...] Read more.
Soft lithography allows for the simple and low-cost fabrication of nanopatterns with different shapes and sizes over large areas. However, the resolution and the aspect ratio of the nanostructures fabricated by soft lithography are limited by the depth and the physical properties of the stamp. In this work, silicon nanobelts and nanostructures were achieved by combining soft nanolithography patterning with optimized reactive ion etching (RIE) in silicon. Using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanopatterned layers with thicknesses ranging between 14 and 50 nm, we obtained silicon nanobelts in areas of square centimeters with aspect ratios up to ~1.6 and linewidths of 225 nm. The soft lithographic process was assisted by a thin film of SiOx (less than 15 nm) used as a hard mask and RIE. This simple patterning method was also used to fabricate 2D nanostructures (nanopillars) with aspect ratios of ~2.7 and diameters of ~200 nm. We demonstrate that large areas patterned with silicon nanobelts exhibit a high reflectivity peak in the ultraviolet C (UVC) spectral region (280 nm) where some aminoacids and peptides have a strong absorption. We also demonstrated how to tailor the aspect ratio and the wettability of these photonic surfaces (contact angles ranging from 8.1 to 96.2°) by changing the RIE power applied during the fabrication process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 50; doi:10.3390/nano7030050
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes
[...] Read more.
One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon–plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Thermal Plasma Reactor at Atmospheric Pressure
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(2), 45; doi:10.3390/nano7020045
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel approach to the synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in reactors operating at atmospheric pressure is presented. Based on the literature and our own research results, the most effective methods of CNT synthesis are investigated. Then, careful selection
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel approach to the synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in reactors operating at atmospheric pressure is presented. Based on the literature and our own research results, the most effective methods of CNT synthesis are investigated. Then, careful selection of reagents for the synthesis process is shown. Thanks to the performed calculations, an optimum composition of gases and the temperature for successful CNT synthesis in the CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process can be chosen. The results, having practical significance, may lead to an improvement of nanomaterials synthesis technology. The study can be used to produce CNTs for electrical and electronic equipment (i.e., supercapacitors or cooling radiators). There is also a possibility of using them in medicine for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Iodine Doping on Optoelectronic and Chemical Properties of Polyterpenol Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(1), 11; doi:10.3390/nano7010011
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Owing to their amorphous, highly cross-liked nature, most plasma polymers display dielectric properties. This study investigates iodine doping as the means to tune optoelectronic properties of plasma polymer derived from a low-cost, renewable resource, i.e., Melaleuca alternifolia oil. In situ exposure of polyterpenol
[...] Read more.
Owing to their amorphous, highly cross-liked nature, most plasma polymers display dielectric properties. This study investigates iodine doping as the means to tune optoelectronic properties of plasma polymer derived from a low-cost, renewable resource, i.e., Melaleuca alternifolia oil. In situ exposure of polyterpenol to vapors of electron-accepting dopant reduced the optical band gap to 1.5 eV and increased the conductivity from 5.05 × 10−8 S/cm to 1.20 × 10−6 S/cm. The increased conductivity may, in part, be attributed to the formation of charge-transfer complexes between the polymer chain and halogen, which act as a cation and anion, respectively. Higher levels of doping notably increased the refractive index, from 1.54 to 1.70 (at 500 nm), and significantly reduced the transparency of films. Full article
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