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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(7), 170; doi:10.3390/nano7070170

Effect of Precursor on Antifouling Efficacy of Vertically-Oriented Graphene Nanosheets

1
School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
2
CSIRO-QUT Joint Sustainable Processes and Devices Laboratory, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract

Antifouling efficacy of graphene nanowalls, i.e., substrate-bound vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets, has been demonstrated against biofilm-forming Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Where graphene nanowalls are typically prepared using costly high-temperature synthesis from high-purity carbon precursors, large-scale applications demand efficient, low-cost processes. The advancement of plasma enabled synthesis techniques in the production of nanomaterials has opened a novel and effective method for converting low-cost natural waste resources to produce nanomaterials with a wide range of applications. Through this work, we report the rapid reforming of sugarcane bagasse, a low-value by-product from sugarcane industry, into high-quality vertically-oriented graphene nanosheets at a relatively low temperature of 400 °C. Electron microscopy showed that graphene nanowalls fabricated from methane were significantly more effective at preventing surface attachment of Gram-negative rod-shaped Escherichia coli compared to bagasse-derived graphene, with both surfaces showing antifouling efficacy comparable to copper. Attachment of Gram-positive coccal Staphylococcus aureus was lower on the surfaces of both types of graphene compared to that on copper, with bagasse-derived graphene being particularly effective. Toxicity to planktonic bacteria estimated as a reduction in colony-forming units as a result of sample exposure showed that both graphenes effectively retarded cell replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; nanowalls; plasma-enabled synthesis graphene; nanowalls; plasma-enabled synthesis
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Prasad, K.; Bandara, C.D.; Kumar, S.; Singh, G.P.; Brockhoff, B.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.K. Effect of Precursor on Antifouling Efficacy of Vertically-Oriented Graphene Nanosheets. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 170.

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